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Effects of Floral Scent, Color and Pollen on Foraging Decisions and Oocyte Development of Common Green Bottle Flies.

Brodie BS, Smith MA, Lawrence J, Gries G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: We also tested the effect of a floral pollen diet with 0-35% moisture content on the ability of females to mature their oocytes.With evidence that L. sericata exploits floral cues during foraging, and that pollen can be an alternate protein source to animal feces and carrion, Pollen apparently plays a major role in the foraging ecology of L. sericata and possibly other filth flies.These flies, in turn, may play a significant role as pollinators, as supported by a recently published study.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Simon Fraser University, Department of Biological Sciences, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

ABSTRACT
The common green bottle fly Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and other filth flies frequently visit pollen-rich composite flowers such as the Oxeye daisy, Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. In laboratory experiments with L. sericata, we investigated the effect of generic floral scent and color cues, and of Oxeye daisy-specific cues, on foraging decisions by recently eclosed flies. We also tested the effect of a floral pollen diet with 0-35% moisture content on the ability of females to mature their oocytes. Our data indicate that (1) young flies in the presence of generic floral scent respond more strongly to a uniformly yellow cue than to any other uniform color cue (green, white, black, blue, red) except for ultraviolet (UV); (2) the floral scent of Oxeye daisies enhances the attractiveness of a yellow cue; and (3) moisture-rich pollen provides nutrients that facilitate ovary maturation of flies. With evidence that L. sericata exploits floral cues during foraging, and that pollen can be an alternate protein source to animal feces and carrion, Pollen apparently plays a major role in the foraging ecology of L. sericata and possibly other filth flies. These flies, in turn, may play a significant role as pollinators, as supported by a recently published study.

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Graphical illustrations of experimental designs.(A, B) Design of two-choice laboratory experiments (see Fig 1) with inverted bottle traps (see methods for detail), consisting of a green trap base and a funnel-like trap top covered with paper of a particular test color, and baited with honey (A), or with three freshly-cut Oxeye daisy inflorescences on 1-cm long stems or three corresponding stems (C) as the olfactory cues; (D) representative (n = 5 each) spectral reflectance profiles from (I) Oxeye daisy inflorescences [floral disc (yellow), petal tip (grey), petal base (black)], (II) yellow, white, red, blue, green, or black construction papers tested in color choice experiments, and (III) UV-reflective paper; the color of each reflectance curve in I-III corresponds to the color of the material measured; in I and III, black curves represent UV reflections.
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pone.0145055.g002: Graphical illustrations of experimental designs.(A, B) Design of two-choice laboratory experiments (see Fig 1) with inverted bottle traps (see methods for detail), consisting of a green trap base and a funnel-like trap top covered with paper of a particular test color, and baited with honey (A), or with three freshly-cut Oxeye daisy inflorescences on 1-cm long stems or three corresponding stems (C) as the olfactory cues; (D) representative (n = 5 each) spectral reflectance profiles from (I) Oxeye daisy inflorescences [floral disc (yellow), petal tip (grey), petal base (black)], (II) yellow, white, red, blue, green, or black construction papers tested in color choice experiments, and (III) UV-reflective paper; the color of each reflectance curve in I-III corresponds to the color of the material measured; in I and III, black curves represent UV reflections.

Mentions: The response of flies to visual and olfactory stimuli was tested in 2-choice experiments 1–11 (Fig 1) using BioQuip® (Compton, CA) wire mesh cages (61 × 61 × 61 cm) with a plated grey base (BioQuip®, Compton, CA, USA). Each cage was illuminated from above with fluorescent lights (Phillips F32TA, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; light intensity in cage: 236 Lux). For each experimental replicate, 100 recently eclosed (1- to 3-day-old) cold-sedated flies of mixed sex (approximate sex ratio 50:50) were introduced into a cage, allowing them to acclimate for 2 h prior to the start of the experiment. The stimuli was tested as part of an inverted “bottle trap” consisting of a 500-mL plastic soda bottle with the inverted top providing a cone-shaped funnel (11.5 cm long × 0.6 cm bottom diameter × 7.9 cm top diameter; Fig 2A) that rested on the bottom half (20 cm long × 7 cm diameter; Fig 2A). The funnel was covered with construction paper (11.5 cm long × 0.6 cm diameter) of a specified color as the visual test cue (Fig 2D) and wrapped the bottom half with green construction paper (Fig 2A), randomly assigning test stimuli to opposite corners of the bioassay cage. A mote of Sparkleen™ (Fisher Scientific Co. Pittsburgh, PA, USA) and water (0.5:5) in the trap bottom drowned the flies that entered the trap. Trap captures were scored after a 6-h experimental duration.


Effects of Floral Scent, Color and Pollen on Foraging Decisions and Oocyte Development of Common Green Bottle Flies.

Brodie BS, Smith MA, Lawrence J, Gries G - PLoS ONE (2015)

Graphical illustrations of experimental designs.(A, B) Design of two-choice laboratory experiments (see Fig 1) with inverted bottle traps (see methods for detail), consisting of a green trap base and a funnel-like trap top covered with paper of a particular test color, and baited with honey (A), or with three freshly-cut Oxeye daisy inflorescences on 1-cm long stems or three corresponding stems (C) as the olfactory cues; (D) representative (n = 5 each) spectral reflectance profiles from (I) Oxeye daisy inflorescences [floral disc (yellow), petal tip (grey), petal base (black)], (II) yellow, white, red, blue, green, or black construction papers tested in color choice experiments, and (III) UV-reflective paper; the color of each reflectance curve in I-III corresponds to the color of the material measured; in I and III, black curves represent UV reflections.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696748&req=5

pone.0145055.g002: Graphical illustrations of experimental designs.(A, B) Design of two-choice laboratory experiments (see Fig 1) with inverted bottle traps (see methods for detail), consisting of a green trap base and a funnel-like trap top covered with paper of a particular test color, and baited with honey (A), or with three freshly-cut Oxeye daisy inflorescences on 1-cm long stems or three corresponding stems (C) as the olfactory cues; (D) representative (n = 5 each) spectral reflectance profiles from (I) Oxeye daisy inflorescences [floral disc (yellow), petal tip (grey), petal base (black)], (II) yellow, white, red, blue, green, or black construction papers tested in color choice experiments, and (III) UV-reflective paper; the color of each reflectance curve in I-III corresponds to the color of the material measured; in I and III, black curves represent UV reflections.
Mentions: The response of flies to visual and olfactory stimuli was tested in 2-choice experiments 1–11 (Fig 1) using BioQuip® (Compton, CA) wire mesh cages (61 × 61 × 61 cm) with a plated grey base (BioQuip®, Compton, CA, USA). Each cage was illuminated from above with fluorescent lights (Phillips F32TA, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; light intensity in cage: 236 Lux). For each experimental replicate, 100 recently eclosed (1- to 3-day-old) cold-sedated flies of mixed sex (approximate sex ratio 50:50) were introduced into a cage, allowing them to acclimate for 2 h prior to the start of the experiment. The stimuli was tested as part of an inverted “bottle trap” consisting of a 500-mL plastic soda bottle with the inverted top providing a cone-shaped funnel (11.5 cm long × 0.6 cm bottom diameter × 7.9 cm top diameter; Fig 2A) that rested on the bottom half (20 cm long × 7 cm diameter; Fig 2A). The funnel was covered with construction paper (11.5 cm long × 0.6 cm diameter) of a specified color as the visual test cue (Fig 2D) and wrapped the bottom half with green construction paper (Fig 2A), randomly assigning test stimuli to opposite corners of the bioassay cage. A mote of Sparkleen™ (Fisher Scientific Co. Pittsburgh, PA, USA) and water (0.5:5) in the trap bottom drowned the flies that entered the trap. Trap captures were scored after a 6-h experimental duration.

Bottom Line: We also tested the effect of a floral pollen diet with 0-35% moisture content on the ability of females to mature their oocytes.With evidence that L. sericata exploits floral cues during foraging, and that pollen can be an alternate protein source to animal feces and carrion, Pollen apparently plays a major role in the foraging ecology of L. sericata and possibly other filth flies.These flies, in turn, may play a significant role as pollinators, as supported by a recently published study.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Simon Fraser University, Department of Biological Sciences, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

ABSTRACT
The common green bottle fly Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and other filth flies frequently visit pollen-rich composite flowers such as the Oxeye daisy, Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. In laboratory experiments with L. sericata, we investigated the effect of generic floral scent and color cues, and of Oxeye daisy-specific cues, on foraging decisions by recently eclosed flies. We also tested the effect of a floral pollen diet with 0-35% moisture content on the ability of females to mature their oocytes. Our data indicate that (1) young flies in the presence of generic floral scent respond more strongly to a uniformly yellow cue than to any other uniform color cue (green, white, black, blue, red) except for ultraviolet (UV); (2) the floral scent of Oxeye daisies enhances the attractiveness of a yellow cue; and (3) moisture-rich pollen provides nutrients that facilitate ovary maturation of flies. With evidence that L. sericata exploits floral cues during foraging, and that pollen can be an alternate protein source to animal feces and carrion, Pollen apparently plays a major role in the foraging ecology of L. sericata and possibly other filth flies. These flies, in turn, may play a significant role as pollinators, as supported by a recently published study.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus