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Hormonal Neuroendocrine and Vasoconstrictor Peptide Responses of Ball Game and Cyclic Sport Elite Athletes by Treadmill Test.

Protzner A, Szmodis M, Udvardy A, Bosnyák E, Trájer E, Komka Z, Györe I, Tóth M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: We obtained significant increases for adrenaline, 2.9- and 3.9-fold by comparing the normalized means for soccer players and kayakers and soccer players and triathletes after/before test, respectively.For noradrenaline, we observed an even stronger, three-time significant difference between each type of ball game and cyclic sport activity.Normalization of concentration ratios of the monitored compounds by the corresponding maximal oxygen uptake reflected better the differences in the response level of adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine and cortisol.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Health Sciences and Sport Medicine, University of Physical Education, Budapest, Hungary.

ABSTRACT

Objective: Our objective was to evaluate complex hormonal response in ball game and cyclic sport elite athletes through an incremental treadmill test, since, so far, variables in experimental procedures have often hampered comparisons of data.

Methods: We determined anthropometric data, heart rate, maximal oxygen uptake, workload, plasma levels of lactate, adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine, cortisol, angiontensinogen and endothelin in control (n = 6), soccer (n = 8), handball (n = 12), kayaking (n = 9) and triathlon (n = 9) groups based on a Bruce protocol through a maximal exercise type of spiroergometric test.

Results: We obtained significant increases for adrenaline, 2.9- and 3.9-fold by comparing the normalized means for soccer players and kayakers and soccer players and triathletes after/before test, respectively. For noradrenaline, we observed an even stronger, three-time significant difference between each type of ball game and cyclic sport activity.

Conclusions: Exercise related adrenaline and noradrenaline changes were more pronounced than dopamine plasma level changes and revealed an opportunity to differentiate cyclic and ball game activities and control group upon these parameters. Normalization of concentration ratios of the monitored compounds by the corresponding maximal oxygen uptake reflected better the differences in the response level of adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine and cortisol.

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Differences in the mean (± standard error, SE) (a) and individual concentration of catecholamines (b), vasoconstrictor peptides (c) and cortisol (d) between after and before test for the volunteers normalized with the basal concentration level of each corresponding neuroendocrine hormone and vasoconstrictor peptide.Significant differences (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) are indicated with one or two asterisk(s), respectively; See text for exact p values. Arabic numbers in Fig 1b–1d represent the volunteer identification code in the given group for which the difference in at least three hormone concentration levels after and before test was higher than the mean of the hormonal concentration difference.
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pone.0144691.g001: Differences in the mean (± standard error, SE) (a) and individual concentration of catecholamines (b), vasoconstrictor peptides (c) and cortisol (d) between after and before test for the volunteers normalized with the basal concentration level of each corresponding neuroendocrine hormone and vasoconstrictor peptide.Significant differences (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) are indicated with one or two asterisk(s), respectively; See text for exact p values. Arabic numbers in Fig 1b–1d represent the volunteer identification code in the given group for which the difference in at least three hormone concentration levels after and before test was higher than the mean of the hormonal concentration difference.

Mentions: All data are expressed as means ± standard deviation (SD) except Fig 1a where ± standard error (SE) was used to solute the representation. Because of the limited sample size to investigate normality, Shapiro-Wilkes normality test was performed. As all data were found to be normal, parametric statistical method was used afterwards. Concerning our results, Student’s paired t-test for dependent samples was the adequate statistical method to describe differences gathered after and before the exercise test. ANOVA was the adequate method for comparing differences in data for concentration variables with more than two independent samples. As post hoc test, we applied the Tukey honest significant difference method for different sample sizes (Statistica 11.0 software, StatSoft, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA). We set the significance level at p < 0.05 or p < 0.01 for all variables.


Hormonal Neuroendocrine and Vasoconstrictor Peptide Responses of Ball Game and Cyclic Sport Elite Athletes by Treadmill Test.

Protzner A, Szmodis M, Udvardy A, Bosnyák E, Trájer E, Komka Z, Györe I, Tóth M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Differences in the mean (± standard error, SE) (a) and individual concentration of catecholamines (b), vasoconstrictor peptides (c) and cortisol (d) between after and before test for the volunteers normalized with the basal concentration level of each corresponding neuroendocrine hormone and vasoconstrictor peptide.Significant differences (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) are indicated with one or two asterisk(s), respectively; See text for exact p values. Arabic numbers in Fig 1b–1d represent the volunteer identification code in the given group for which the difference in at least three hormone concentration levels after and before test was higher than the mean of the hormonal concentration difference.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696681&req=5

pone.0144691.g001: Differences in the mean (± standard error, SE) (a) and individual concentration of catecholamines (b), vasoconstrictor peptides (c) and cortisol (d) between after and before test for the volunteers normalized with the basal concentration level of each corresponding neuroendocrine hormone and vasoconstrictor peptide.Significant differences (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) are indicated with one or two asterisk(s), respectively; See text for exact p values. Arabic numbers in Fig 1b–1d represent the volunteer identification code in the given group for which the difference in at least three hormone concentration levels after and before test was higher than the mean of the hormonal concentration difference.
Mentions: All data are expressed as means ± standard deviation (SD) except Fig 1a where ± standard error (SE) was used to solute the representation. Because of the limited sample size to investigate normality, Shapiro-Wilkes normality test was performed. As all data were found to be normal, parametric statistical method was used afterwards. Concerning our results, Student’s paired t-test for dependent samples was the adequate statistical method to describe differences gathered after and before the exercise test. ANOVA was the adequate method for comparing differences in data for concentration variables with more than two independent samples. As post hoc test, we applied the Tukey honest significant difference method for different sample sizes (Statistica 11.0 software, StatSoft, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA). We set the significance level at p < 0.05 or p < 0.01 for all variables.

Bottom Line: We obtained significant increases for adrenaline, 2.9- and 3.9-fold by comparing the normalized means for soccer players and kayakers and soccer players and triathletes after/before test, respectively.For noradrenaline, we observed an even stronger, three-time significant difference between each type of ball game and cyclic sport activity.Normalization of concentration ratios of the monitored compounds by the corresponding maximal oxygen uptake reflected better the differences in the response level of adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine and cortisol.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Health Sciences and Sport Medicine, University of Physical Education, Budapest, Hungary.

ABSTRACT

Objective: Our objective was to evaluate complex hormonal response in ball game and cyclic sport elite athletes through an incremental treadmill test, since, so far, variables in experimental procedures have often hampered comparisons of data.

Methods: We determined anthropometric data, heart rate, maximal oxygen uptake, workload, plasma levels of lactate, adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine, cortisol, angiontensinogen and endothelin in control (n = 6), soccer (n = 8), handball (n = 12), kayaking (n = 9) and triathlon (n = 9) groups based on a Bruce protocol through a maximal exercise type of spiroergometric test.

Results: We obtained significant increases for adrenaline, 2.9- and 3.9-fold by comparing the normalized means for soccer players and kayakers and soccer players and triathletes after/before test, respectively. For noradrenaline, we observed an even stronger, three-time significant difference between each type of ball game and cyclic sport activity.

Conclusions: Exercise related adrenaline and noradrenaline changes were more pronounced than dopamine plasma level changes and revealed an opportunity to differentiate cyclic and ball game activities and control group upon these parameters. Normalization of concentration ratios of the monitored compounds by the corresponding maximal oxygen uptake reflected better the differences in the response level of adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine and cortisol.

Show MeSH