Limits...
Jumping Stand Apparatus Reveals Rapidly Specific Age-Related Cognitive Impairments in Mouse Lemur Primates.

Picq JL, Villain N, Gary C, Pifferi F, Dhenain M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The locomotor behavior of this arboreal primate is characterized by jumps to and from trunks and branches.In order to develop cognitive testing methods appropriate to the behavioral and biological traits of this species, we adapted the Lashley jumping stand apparatus, initially designed for rats, to the mouse lemur.We used this jumping stand apparatus to compare performances of young (n = 12) and aged (n = 8) adults in acquisition and long-term retention of visual discriminations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire de psychopathologie et de neuropsychologie, E.A. 2027, Université Paris 8, 2 rue de la liberté, 93000 St Denis, France.

ABSTRACT
The mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) is a promising primate model for investigating normal and pathological cerebral aging. The locomotor behavior of this arboreal primate is characterized by jumps to and from trunks and branches. Many reports indicate insufficient adaptation of the mouse lemur to experimental devices used to evaluate its cognition, which is an impediment to the efficient use of this animal in research. In order to develop cognitive testing methods appropriate to the behavioral and biological traits of this species, we adapted the Lashley jumping stand apparatus, initially designed for rats, to the mouse lemur. We used this jumping stand apparatus to compare performances of young (n = 12) and aged (n = 8) adults in acquisition and long-term retention of visual discriminations. All mouse lemurs completed the tasks and only 25 trials, on average, were needed to master the first discrimination problem with no age-related differences. A month later, all mouse lemurs made progress for acquiring the second discrimination problem but only the young group reached immediately the criterion in the retention test of the first discrimination problem. This study shows that the jumping stand apparatus allows rapid and efficient evaluation of cognition in mouse lemurs and demonstrates that about half of the old mouse lemurs display a specific deficit in long-term retention but not in acquisition of visual discrimination.

Show MeSH
Mean scores on the first discrimination problem (D1), retention of the first discrimination problem (D1r) and second discrimination problem (D2) in young (black) and older (grey) adult animals.Errors bars depict SEM. * indicates a significant difference.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696676&req=5

pone.0146238.g003: Mean scores on the first discrimination problem (D1), retention of the first discrimination problem (D1r) and second discrimination problem (D2) in young (black) and older (grey) adult animals.Errors bars depict SEM. * indicates a significant difference.

Mentions: In the first visual discrimination (D1) the mean number of errors to criterion was 11.9 ±1.2 for the young group and 10.9 ±1.5 for the aged group (see Fig 3 and S1 Table). No group differences were observed between young and old individuals (t = 0.53, p > 0.05; Fig 3). On the retention phase of the first discrimination problem (D1r), both young and old animals succeeded faster than in the learning of the discrimination (D1) (t = 9.68 and 6.25, respectively, p < 0.001). All young mouse lemurs immediately attained at least a 80% correct response level (criterion level) in the first ten trials (errors ≤ 2, mean = 0.8 ±0.2). The older animals made more errors before reaching criterion (mean = 2.6 ±0.8) than the young ones (t = 26, p = 0.018) and only half of the aged mouse lemurs succeeded in reaching the criterion in the first ten trials (Fig 3). No differences between young and aged mouse lemurs were seen on the second discrimination problem (D2, t = 0.17, p > 0.05). The performances on D2 were significantly better than those recorded on D1 for both the young and old individuals (t = 6.72 and 4.64, respectively, p < 0.01; Fig 3). The performances on D1r were significantly better than those recorded on D2 for the young individuals (t = 5.07, p < 0.01) but not for the aged individuals (t = 2.25, p > 0.05).


Jumping Stand Apparatus Reveals Rapidly Specific Age-Related Cognitive Impairments in Mouse Lemur Primates.

Picq JL, Villain N, Gary C, Pifferi F, Dhenain M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Mean scores on the first discrimination problem (D1), retention of the first discrimination problem (D1r) and second discrimination problem (D2) in young (black) and older (grey) adult animals.Errors bars depict SEM. * indicates a significant difference.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696676&req=5

pone.0146238.g003: Mean scores on the first discrimination problem (D1), retention of the first discrimination problem (D1r) and second discrimination problem (D2) in young (black) and older (grey) adult animals.Errors bars depict SEM. * indicates a significant difference.
Mentions: In the first visual discrimination (D1) the mean number of errors to criterion was 11.9 ±1.2 for the young group and 10.9 ±1.5 for the aged group (see Fig 3 and S1 Table). No group differences were observed between young and old individuals (t = 0.53, p > 0.05; Fig 3). On the retention phase of the first discrimination problem (D1r), both young and old animals succeeded faster than in the learning of the discrimination (D1) (t = 9.68 and 6.25, respectively, p < 0.001). All young mouse lemurs immediately attained at least a 80% correct response level (criterion level) in the first ten trials (errors ≤ 2, mean = 0.8 ±0.2). The older animals made more errors before reaching criterion (mean = 2.6 ±0.8) than the young ones (t = 26, p = 0.018) and only half of the aged mouse lemurs succeeded in reaching the criterion in the first ten trials (Fig 3). No differences between young and aged mouse lemurs were seen on the second discrimination problem (D2, t = 0.17, p > 0.05). The performances on D2 were significantly better than those recorded on D1 for both the young and old individuals (t = 6.72 and 4.64, respectively, p < 0.01; Fig 3). The performances on D1r were significantly better than those recorded on D2 for the young individuals (t = 5.07, p < 0.01) but not for the aged individuals (t = 2.25, p > 0.05).

Bottom Line: The locomotor behavior of this arboreal primate is characterized by jumps to and from trunks and branches.In order to develop cognitive testing methods appropriate to the behavioral and biological traits of this species, we adapted the Lashley jumping stand apparatus, initially designed for rats, to the mouse lemur.We used this jumping stand apparatus to compare performances of young (n = 12) and aged (n = 8) adults in acquisition and long-term retention of visual discriminations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire de psychopathologie et de neuropsychologie, E.A. 2027, Université Paris 8, 2 rue de la liberté, 93000 St Denis, France.

ABSTRACT
The mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) is a promising primate model for investigating normal and pathological cerebral aging. The locomotor behavior of this arboreal primate is characterized by jumps to and from trunks and branches. Many reports indicate insufficient adaptation of the mouse lemur to experimental devices used to evaluate its cognition, which is an impediment to the efficient use of this animal in research. In order to develop cognitive testing methods appropriate to the behavioral and biological traits of this species, we adapted the Lashley jumping stand apparatus, initially designed for rats, to the mouse lemur. We used this jumping stand apparatus to compare performances of young (n = 12) and aged (n = 8) adults in acquisition and long-term retention of visual discriminations. All mouse lemurs completed the tasks and only 25 trials, on average, were needed to master the first discrimination problem with no age-related differences. A month later, all mouse lemurs made progress for acquiring the second discrimination problem but only the young group reached immediately the criterion in the retention test of the first discrimination problem. This study shows that the jumping stand apparatus allows rapid and efficient evaluation of cognition in mouse lemurs and demonstrates that about half of the old mouse lemurs display a specific deficit in long-term retention but not in acquisition of visual discrimination.

Show MeSH