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Tongue Growth during Prenatal Development in Korean Fetuses and Embryos.

Hong SJ, Cha BG, Kim YS, Lee SK, Chi JG - J Pathol Transl Med (2015)

Bottom Line: As the growth of the mandible and maxilla advanced, the tongue was pulled down and protruded anteriorly to form the linguomandibular complex.The early clockwise growth of the ACB to the maxillary plane became harmonious with the counter-clockwise growth of the PCB to the tongue axis during the early prenatal period.These observations suggest that human embryonic tongue growth affects ACB and PCB angulation, stimulates maxillary growth, and induces mandibular movement to achieve the essential functions of oral and maxillofacial structures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Oral Pathology, College of Dentistry, Gangnueng-Wonju National University, Gangneung, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Background: Prenatal tongue development may affect oral-craniofacial structures, but this muscular organ has rarely been investigated.

Methods: In order to document the physiology of prenatal tongue growth, we histologically examined the facial and cranial base structures of 56 embryos and 106 fetuses.

Results: In Streeter's stages 13-14 (fertilization age [FA], 28 to 32 days), the tongue protruded into the stomodeal cavity from the retrohyoid space to the cartilaginous mesenchyme of the primitive cranial base, and in Streeter's stage 15 (FA, 33 to 36 days), the tongue rapidly swelled and compressed the cranial base to initiate spheno-occipital synchondrosis and continued to swell laterally to occupy most of the stomodeal cavity in Streeter's stage 16-17 (FA, 37 to 43 days). In Streeter's stage 18-20 (FA, 44 to 51 days), the tongue was vertically positioned and filled the posterior nasopharyngeal space. As the growth of the mandible and maxilla advanced, the tongue was pulled down and protruded anteriorly to form the linguomandibular complex. Angulation between the anterior cranial base (ACB) and the posterior cranial base (PCB) was formed by the emerging tongue at FA 4 weeks and became constant at approximately 124°-126° from FA 6 weeks until birth, which was consistent with angulations measured on adult cephalograms.

Conclusions: The early clockwise growth of the ACB to the maxillary plane became harmonious with the counter-clockwise growth of the PCB to the tongue axis during the early prenatal period. These observations suggest that human embryonic tongue growth affects ACB and PCB angulation, stimulates maxillary growth, and induces mandibular movement to achieve the essential functions of oral and maxillofacial structures.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Sequential tongue development (TD) stages during the early embryonic period aligned with anterior cranial base (ACB) and posterior cranial base (PCB) lines. (A) TD stage 1. (B) TD stage 2. (C–E) TD stage 3. (F) TD stage 4. (G, H) TD stage 5. (I) TD stage 6.
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f2-jptm-2015-09-17: Sequential tongue development (TD) stages during the early embryonic period aligned with anterior cranial base (ACB) and posterior cranial base (PCB) lines. (A) TD stage 1. (B) TD stage 2. (C–E) TD stage 3. (F) TD stage 4. (G, H) TD stage 5. (I) TD stage 6.

Mentions: The tongue primordium was observed on the medial side of the first and second branchial arches, which were arch-shaped from Streeter’s stage 13, and primitive mesenchymal cells of the primordium migrated from the inferior to the superior. At this time, the first mesial swelling of the tongue, the tuberculum impar, was seen in the oral cavity. Posteriorly to the mesial swelling, infiltration and proliferation of the thyroid primordium were also noted (Fig. 2A). In Streeter’s stage 14 (FA, 31 to 32 days), the second and third mesial tongue swellings were clearly seen posterior to the first mesial swelling; these were destined to differentiate into copula (or hypobranchial eminence) and epiglottal swelling, respectively (Fig. 1C).


Tongue Growth during Prenatal Development in Korean Fetuses and Embryos.

Hong SJ, Cha BG, Kim YS, Lee SK, Chi JG - J Pathol Transl Med (2015)

Sequential tongue development (TD) stages during the early embryonic period aligned with anterior cranial base (ACB) and posterior cranial base (PCB) lines. (A) TD stage 1. (B) TD stage 2. (C–E) TD stage 3. (F) TD stage 4. (G, H) TD stage 5. (I) TD stage 6.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696530&req=5

f2-jptm-2015-09-17: Sequential tongue development (TD) stages during the early embryonic period aligned with anterior cranial base (ACB) and posterior cranial base (PCB) lines. (A) TD stage 1. (B) TD stage 2. (C–E) TD stage 3. (F) TD stage 4. (G, H) TD stage 5. (I) TD stage 6.
Mentions: The tongue primordium was observed on the medial side of the first and second branchial arches, which were arch-shaped from Streeter’s stage 13, and primitive mesenchymal cells of the primordium migrated from the inferior to the superior. At this time, the first mesial swelling of the tongue, the tuberculum impar, was seen in the oral cavity. Posteriorly to the mesial swelling, infiltration and proliferation of the thyroid primordium were also noted (Fig. 2A). In Streeter’s stage 14 (FA, 31 to 32 days), the second and third mesial tongue swellings were clearly seen posterior to the first mesial swelling; these were destined to differentiate into copula (or hypobranchial eminence) and epiglottal swelling, respectively (Fig. 1C).

Bottom Line: As the growth of the mandible and maxilla advanced, the tongue was pulled down and protruded anteriorly to form the linguomandibular complex.The early clockwise growth of the ACB to the maxillary plane became harmonious with the counter-clockwise growth of the PCB to the tongue axis during the early prenatal period.These observations suggest that human embryonic tongue growth affects ACB and PCB angulation, stimulates maxillary growth, and induces mandibular movement to achieve the essential functions of oral and maxillofacial structures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Oral Pathology, College of Dentistry, Gangnueng-Wonju National University, Gangneung, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Background: Prenatal tongue development may affect oral-craniofacial structures, but this muscular organ has rarely been investigated.

Methods: In order to document the physiology of prenatal tongue growth, we histologically examined the facial and cranial base structures of 56 embryos and 106 fetuses.

Results: In Streeter's stages 13-14 (fertilization age [FA], 28 to 32 days), the tongue protruded into the stomodeal cavity from the retrohyoid space to the cartilaginous mesenchyme of the primitive cranial base, and in Streeter's stage 15 (FA, 33 to 36 days), the tongue rapidly swelled and compressed the cranial base to initiate spheno-occipital synchondrosis and continued to swell laterally to occupy most of the stomodeal cavity in Streeter's stage 16-17 (FA, 37 to 43 days). In Streeter's stage 18-20 (FA, 44 to 51 days), the tongue was vertically positioned and filled the posterior nasopharyngeal space. As the growth of the mandible and maxilla advanced, the tongue was pulled down and protruded anteriorly to form the linguomandibular complex. Angulation between the anterior cranial base (ACB) and the posterior cranial base (PCB) was formed by the emerging tongue at FA 4 weeks and became constant at approximately 124°-126° from FA 6 weeks until birth, which was consistent with angulations measured on adult cephalograms.

Conclusions: The early clockwise growth of the ACB to the maxillary plane became harmonious with the counter-clockwise growth of the PCB to the tongue axis during the early prenatal period. These observations suggest that human embryonic tongue growth affects ACB and PCB angulation, stimulates maxillary growth, and induces mandibular movement to achieve the essential functions of oral and maxillofacial structures.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus