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Tongue Growth during Prenatal Development in Korean Fetuses and Embryos.

Hong SJ, Cha BG, Kim YS, Lee SK, Chi JG - J Pathol Transl Med (2015)

Bottom Line: As the growth of the mandible and maxilla advanced, the tongue was pulled down and protruded anteriorly to form the linguomandibular complex.The early clockwise growth of the ACB to the maxillary plane became harmonious with the counter-clockwise growth of the PCB to the tongue axis during the early prenatal period.These observations suggest that human embryonic tongue growth affects ACB and PCB angulation, stimulates maxillary growth, and induces mandibular movement to achieve the essential functions of oral and maxillofacial structures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Oral Pathology, College of Dentistry, Gangnueng-Wonju National University, Gangneung, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Background: Prenatal tongue development may affect oral-craniofacial structures, but this muscular organ has rarely been investigated.

Methods: In order to document the physiology of prenatal tongue growth, we histologically examined the facial and cranial base structures of 56 embryos and 106 fetuses.

Results: In Streeter's stages 13-14 (fertilization age [FA], 28 to 32 days), the tongue protruded into the stomodeal cavity from the retrohyoid space to the cartilaginous mesenchyme of the primitive cranial base, and in Streeter's stage 15 (FA, 33 to 36 days), the tongue rapidly swelled and compressed the cranial base to initiate spheno-occipital synchondrosis and continued to swell laterally to occupy most of the stomodeal cavity in Streeter's stage 16-17 (FA, 37 to 43 days). In Streeter's stage 18-20 (FA, 44 to 51 days), the tongue was vertically positioned and filled the posterior nasopharyngeal space. As the growth of the mandible and maxilla advanced, the tongue was pulled down and protruded anteriorly to form the linguomandibular complex. Angulation between the anterior cranial base (ACB) and the posterior cranial base (PCB) was formed by the emerging tongue at FA 4 weeks and became constant at approximately 124°-126° from FA 6 weeks until birth, which was consistent with angulations measured on adult cephalograms.

Conclusions: The early clockwise growth of the ACB to the maxillary plane became harmonious with the counter-clockwise growth of the PCB to the tongue axis during the early prenatal period. These observations suggest that human embryonic tongue growth affects ACB and PCB angulation, stimulates maxillary growth, and induces mandibular movement to achieve the essential functions of oral and maxillofacial structures.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Organogenesis of a fetal tongue. Photographs of mid-sagittal sections of an embryonic human tongue. (A, B) Tongue development (TD) stage 1. Co, copula; Ce, foramen cecum. (C) TD stage 1. (D, E) TD stage 2. (F, G) TD stage 3. (H) TD stage 4. (I, J) TD stage 5. MC, Meckerl's cartilage; Md, mandible. (K) TD stage 6. (L) TD stage 7. Microscopic features of tongue muscle at TD stage 3 (M), TD stage 6 (N), and TD stage 7 (O).
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f1-jptm-2015-09-17: Organogenesis of a fetal tongue. Photographs of mid-sagittal sections of an embryonic human tongue. (A, B) Tongue development (TD) stage 1. Co, copula; Ce, foramen cecum. (C) TD stage 1. (D, E) TD stage 2. (F, G) TD stage 3. (H) TD stage 4. (I, J) TD stage 5. MC, Meckerl's cartilage; Md, mandible. (K) TD stage 6. (L) TD stage 7. Microscopic features of tongue muscle at TD stage 3 (M), TD stage 6 (N), and TD stage 7 (O).

Mentions: From Streeter’s stage 13 (FA, 28 to 30 days), primitive branchial arches were observed around the cervix and became prominent through Streeter’s stage 14–15 (FA, 31 to 36 days). These branchial arches were covered with a thin layer of epithelial cells with a mesenchymal cell core (Fig. 1A, B). In Streeter’s stage 15 (FA, 33 to 36 days) the first branchial arch swelled dominantly and became the largest and was demarcated from surrounding tissues. The first branchial arch formed the lower face and gradually bulged. Blood vessels actively proliferated within the first branchial arch, and subsequently, the second, third, fourth, and fifth branchial arches gradually and sequentially bulged. In addition, blood vessel proliferation was observed within these arches. Finally, the cervix was partly outlined.


Tongue Growth during Prenatal Development in Korean Fetuses and Embryos.

Hong SJ, Cha BG, Kim YS, Lee SK, Chi JG - J Pathol Transl Med (2015)

Organogenesis of a fetal tongue. Photographs of mid-sagittal sections of an embryonic human tongue. (A, B) Tongue development (TD) stage 1. Co, copula; Ce, foramen cecum. (C) TD stage 1. (D, E) TD stage 2. (F, G) TD stage 3. (H) TD stage 4. (I, J) TD stage 5. MC, Meckerl's cartilage; Md, mandible. (K) TD stage 6. (L) TD stage 7. Microscopic features of tongue muscle at TD stage 3 (M), TD stage 6 (N), and TD stage 7 (O).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696530&req=5

f1-jptm-2015-09-17: Organogenesis of a fetal tongue. Photographs of mid-sagittal sections of an embryonic human tongue. (A, B) Tongue development (TD) stage 1. Co, copula; Ce, foramen cecum. (C) TD stage 1. (D, E) TD stage 2. (F, G) TD stage 3. (H) TD stage 4. (I, J) TD stage 5. MC, Meckerl's cartilage; Md, mandible. (K) TD stage 6. (L) TD stage 7. Microscopic features of tongue muscle at TD stage 3 (M), TD stage 6 (N), and TD stage 7 (O).
Mentions: From Streeter’s stage 13 (FA, 28 to 30 days), primitive branchial arches were observed around the cervix and became prominent through Streeter’s stage 14–15 (FA, 31 to 36 days). These branchial arches were covered with a thin layer of epithelial cells with a mesenchymal cell core (Fig. 1A, B). In Streeter’s stage 15 (FA, 33 to 36 days) the first branchial arch swelled dominantly and became the largest and was demarcated from surrounding tissues. The first branchial arch formed the lower face and gradually bulged. Blood vessels actively proliferated within the first branchial arch, and subsequently, the second, third, fourth, and fifth branchial arches gradually and sequentially bulged. In addition, blood vessel proliferation was observed within these arches. Finally, the cervix was partly outlined.

Bottom Line: As the growth of the mandible and maxilla advanced, the tongue was pulled down and protruded anteriorly to form the linguomandibular complex.The early clockwise growth of the ACB to the maxillary plane became harmonious with the counter-clockwise growth of the PCB to the tongue axis during the early prenatal period.These observations suggest that human embryonic tongue growth affects ACB and PCB angulation, stimulates maxillary growth, and induces mandibular movement to achieve the essential functions of oral and maxillofacial structures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Oral Pathology, College of Dentistry, Gangnueng-Wonju National University, Gangneung, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Background: Prenatal tongue development may affect oral-craniofacial structures, but this muscular organ has rarely been investigated.

Methods: In order to document the physiology of prenatal tongue growth, we histologically examined the facial and cranial base structures of 56 embryos and 106 fetuses.

Results: In Streeter's stages 13-14 (fertilization age [FA], 28 to 32 days), the tongue protruded into the stomodeal cavity from the retrohyoid space to the cartilaginous mesenchyme of the primitive cranial base, and in Streeter's stage 15 (FA, 33 to 36 days), the tongue rapidly swelled and compressed the cranial base to initiate spheno-occipital synchondrosis and continued to swell laterally to occupy most of the stomodeal cavity in Streeter's stage 16-17 (FA, 37 to 43 days). In Streeter's stage 18-20 (FA, 44 to 51 days), the tongue was vertically positioned and filled the posterior nasopharyngeal space. As the growth of the mandible and maxilla advanced, the tongue was pulled down and protruded anteriorly to form the linguomandibular complex. Angulation between the anterior cranial base (ACB) and the posterior cranial base (PCB) was formed by the emerging tongue at FA 4 weeks and became constant at approximately 124°-126° from FA 6 weeks until birth, which was consistent with angulations measured on adult cephalograms.

Conclusions: The early clockwise growth of the ACB to the maxillary plane became harmonious with the counter-clockwise growth of the PCB to the tongue axis during the early prenatal period. These observations suggest that human embryonic tongue growth affects ACB and PCB angulation, stimulates maxillary growth, and induces mandibular movement to achieve the essential functions of oral and maxillofacial structures.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus