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Low-temperature-processed efficient semi-transparent planar perovskite solar cells for bifacial and tandem applications.

Fu F, Feurer T, Jäger T, Avancini E, Bissig B, Yoon S, Buecheler S, Tiwari AN - Nat Commun (2015)

Bottom Line: Semi-transparent perovskite solar cells are highly attractive for a wide range of applications, such as bifacial and tandem solar cells; however, the power conversion efficiency of semi-transparent devices still lags behind due to missing suitable transparent rear electrode or deposition process.We employ high-mobility hydrogenated indium oxide as transparent rear electrode by room-temperature radio-frequency magnetron sputtering, yielding a semi-transparent solar cell with steady-state efficiency of 14.2% along with 72% average transmittance in the near-infrared region.With such semi-transparent devices, we show a substantial power enhancement when operating as bifacial solar cell, and in combination with low-bandgap copper indium gallium diselenide we further demonstrate 20.5% efficiency in four-terminal tandem configuration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory for Thin Films and Photovoltaics, Empa-Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Semi-transparent perovskite solar cells are highly attractive for a wide range of applications, such as bifacial and tandem solar cells; however, the power conversion efficiency of semi-transparent devices still lags behind due to missing suitable transparent rear electrode or deposition process. Here we report a low-temperature process for efficient semi-transparent planar perovskite solar cells. A hybrid thermal evaporation-spin coating technique is developed to allow the introduction of PCBM in regular device configuration, which facilitates the growth of high-quality absorber, resulting in hysteresis-free devices. We employ high-mobility hydrogenated indium oxide as transparent rear electrode by room-temperature radio-frequency magnetron sputtering, yielding a semi-transparent solar cell with steady-state efficiency of 14.2% along with 72% average transmittance in the near-infrared region. With such semi-transparent devices, we show a substantial power enhancement when operating as bifacial solar cell, and in combination with low-bandgap copper indium gallium diselenide we further demonstrate 20.5% efficiency in four-terminal tandem configuration.

No MeSH data available.


Microstructure, time-resolved photoluminescence and photovoltaic performance of planar perovskite solar cells.(a,b) The cross-sectional SEM images of devices without (a) and with (b) PCBM, respectively. The rectangular area in a indicates shunting path. (c–e) The current density–voltage (J–V) curves (c), EQE spectra (d) and steady-state efficiency at maximum power point (e) of the planar perovskite solar cells. All the devices are measured under simulated AM1.5G irradiation with 1,000 W m−2 intensity. The J–V measurements are performed in both forward (−0.1 to 1.2 V) and backward (1.2 to −0.1 V) direction at a scan rate and delay time of 0.3 V s−1 and 10 ms, respectively. The steady-state efficiency is evaluated by using a maximum power point tracker algorithm with constant AM1.5G illumination. (f) Time-resolved photoluminescence for samples with and without PCBM layer. Scale bars, 1 μm in a and b. W/o, without.
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f2: Microstructure, time-resolved photoluminescence and photovoltaic performance of planar perovskite solar cells.(a,b) The cross-sectional SEM images of devices without (a) and with (b) PCBM, respectively. The rectangular area in a indicates shunting path. (c–e) The current density–voltage (J–V) curves (c), EQE spectra (d) and steady-state efficiency at maximum power point (e) of the planar perovskite solar cells. All the devices are measured under simulated AM1.5G irradiation with 1,000 W m−2 intensity. The J–V measurements are performed in both forward (−0.1 to 1.2 V) and backward (1.2 to −0.1 V) direction at a scan rate and delay time of 0.3 V s−1 and 10 ms, respectively. The steady-state efficiency is evaluated by using a maximum power point tracker algorithm with constant AM1.5G illumination. (f) Time-resolved photoluminescence for samples with and without PCBM layer. Scale bars, 1 μm in a and b. W/o, without.

Mentions: The hybrid thermal evaporation–spin coating method enables us to investigate the influences of PCBM on perovskite microstructure and device performance in regular planar configuration. Figure 2a,b presents the cross-sectional SEM images of the planar perovskite solar cell with and without PCBM layer, respectively. Other than PCBM, the devices are fabricated by an identical process with perovskite layer grown from 120 nm PbI2 (estimated by quartz microbalance) and 40 mg ml−1 CH3NH3I solution. It can be seen from the SEM images that the perovskite layer shows considerable surface roughness and thickness non-uniformity when grown directly on ZnO, which leads to low-resistance shunting paths and insufficient light absorption. A uniform and compact perovskite layer with large grain size is obtained when grown on PCBM. The microstructural difference in perovskite layers is mainly attributed to the morphological differences in PbI2 layers, as shown in Supplementary Fig. 1. If PbI2 is grown on ZnO directly, porous layers comprising numerous nanoplates are obtained41. This could form lots of grain boundaries and defects after the conversion into perovskite. It is important to note that high-efficiency devices produced by the here described process always contain residual PbI2 as shown in Supplementary Fig. 2. The existence of residual PbI2 is also observed in many high-efficiency devices reported in literature and several beneficial effects, for example, grain boundary passivation, hole-blocking effect and so on, have been proposed4243.


Low-temperature-processed efficient semi-transparent planar perovskite solar cells for bifacial and tandem applications.

Fu F, Feurer T, Jäger T, Avancini E, Bissig B, Yoon S, Buecheler S, Tiwari AN - Nat Commun (2015)

Microstructure, time-resolved photoluminescence and photovoltaic performance of planar perovskite solar cells.(a,b) The cross-sectional SEM images of devices without (a) and with (b) PCBM, respectively. The rectangular area in a indicates shunting path. (c–e) The current density–voltage (J–V) curves (c), EQE spectra (d) and steady-state efficiency at maximum power point (e) of the planar perovskite solar cells. All the devices are measured under simulated AM1.5G irradiation with 1,000 W m−2 intensity. The J–V measurements are performed in both forward (−0.1 to 1.2 V) and backward (1.2 to −0.1 V) direction at a scan rate and delay time of 0.3 V s−1 and 10 ms, respectively. The steady-state efficiency is evaluated by using a maximum power point tracker algorithm with constant AM1.5G illumination. (f) Time-resolved photoluminescence for samples with and without PCBM layer. Scale bars, 1 μm in a and b. W/o, without.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696455&req=5

f2: Microstructure, time-resolved photoluminescence and photovoltaic performance of planar perovskite solar cells.(a,b) The cross-sectional SEM images of devices without (a) and with (b) PCBM, respectively. The rectangular area in a indicates shunting path. (c–e) The current density–voltage (J–V) curves (c), EQE spectra (d) and steady-state efficiency at maximum power point (e) of the planar perovskite solar cells. All the devices are measured under simulated AM1.5G irradiation with 1,000 W m−2 intensity. The J–V measurements are performed in both forward (−0.1 to 1.2 V) and backward (1.2 to −0.1 V) direction at a scan rate and delay time of 0.3 V s−1 and 10 ms, respectively. The steady-state efficiency is evaluated by using a maximum power point tracker algorithm with constant AM1.5G illumination. (f) Time-resolved photoluminescence for samples with and without PCBM layer. Scale bars, 1 μm in a and b. W/o, without.
Mentions: The hybrid thermal evaporation–spin coating method enables us to investigate the influences of PCBM on perovskite microstructure and device performance in regular planar configuration. Figure 2a,b presents the cross-sectional SEM images of the planar perovskite solar cell with and without PCBM layer, respectively. Other than PCBM, the devices are fabricated by an identical process with perovskite layer grown from 120 nm PbI2 (estimated by quartz microbalance) and 40 mg ml−1 CH3NH3I solution. It can be seen from the SEM images that the perovskite layer shows considerable surface roughness and thickness non-uniformity when grown directly on ZnO, which leads to low-resistance shunting paths and insufficient light absorption. A uniform and compact perovskite layer with large grain size is obtained when grown on PCBM. The microstructural difference in perovskite layers is mainly attributed to the morphological differences in PbI2 layers, as shown in Supplementary Fig. 1. If PbI2 is grown on ZnO directly, porous layers comprising numerous nanoplates are obtained41. This could form lots of grain boundaries and defects after the conversion into perovskite. It is important to note that high-efficiency devices produced by the here described process always contain residual PbI2 as shown in Supplementary Fig. 2. The existence of residual PbI2 is also observed in many high-efficiency devices reported in literature and several beneficial effects, for example, grain boundary passivation, hole-blocking effect and so on, have been proposed4243.

Bottom Line: Semi-transparent perovskite solar cells are highly attractive for a wide range of applications, such as bifacial and tandem solar cells; however, the power conversion efficiency of semi-transparent devices still lags behind due to missing suitable transparent rear electrode or deposition process.We employ high-mobility hydrogenated indium oxide as transparent rear electrode by room-temperature radio-frequency magnetron sputtering, yielding a semi-transparent solar cell with steady-state efficiency of 14.2% along with 72% average transmittance in the near-infrared region.With such semi-transparent devices, we show a substantial power enhancement when operating as bifacial solar cell, and in combination with low-bandgap copper indium gallium diselenide we further demonstrate 20.5% efficiency in four-terminal tandem configuration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory for Thin Films and Photovoltaics, Empa-Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Semi-transparent perovskite solar cells are highly attractive for a wide range of applications, such as bifacial and tandem solar cells; however, the power conversion efficiency of semi-transparent devices still lags behind due to missing suitable transparent rear electrode or deposition process. Here we report a low-temperature process for efficient semi-transparent planar perovskite solar cells. A hybrid thermal evaporation-spin coating technique is developed to allow the introduction of PCBM in regular device configuration, which facilitates the growth of high-quality absorber, resulting in hysteresis-free devices. We employ high-mobility hydrogenated indium oxide as transparent rear electrode by room-temperature radio-frequency magnetron sputtering, yielding a semi-transparent solar cell with steady-state efficiency of 14.2% along with 72% average transmittance in the near-infrared region. With such semi-transparent devices, we show a substantial power enhancement when operating as bifacial solar cell, and in combination with low-bandgap copper indium gallium diselenide we further demonstrate 20.5% efficiency in four-terminal tandem configuration.

No MeSH data available.