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Cyclosporine A: Novel concepts in its role in drug-induced gingival overgrowth.

Ponnaiyan D, Jegadeesan V - Dent Res J (Isfahan) (2015 Nov-Dec)

Bottom Line: Cyclosporine is a selective immunosuppressant that has a variety of applications in medical practice.Plaque-induced gingival inflammation appears to enhance this interaction.Newer molecular approaches are needed to clearly establish the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth and to provide novel information for the design of future preventive and therapeutic modalities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, SRM Dental College and Hospital, Ramapuram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

ABSTRACT
Cyclosporine is a selective immunosuppressant that has a variety of applications in medical practice. Like phenytoin and the calcium channel blockers, the drug is associated with gingival overgrowth. This review considers the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and unwanted effects of cyclosporine, in particular the action of the drug on the gingival tissues. In addition, elucidates the current concepts in mechanisms of cyclosporine-induced gingival overgrowth. Clinical and cell culture studies suggest that the mechanism of gingival overgrowth is a result of the interaction between the drug and its metabolites with susceptible gingival fibroblasts. Plaque-induced gingival inflammation appears to enhance this interaction. However, understanding of the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth is incomplete at best. Hence, it would be pertinent to identify and explore possible risk factors relating to both prevalence and severity of drug-induced gingival overgrowth. Newer molecular approaches are needed to clearly establish the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth and to provide novel information for the design of future preventive and therapeutic modalities.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Clinical presentation of cyclosporine A-induced gingival overgrowth.
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Figure 4: Clinical presentation of cyclosporine A-induced gingival overgrowth.

Mentions: Cyclosporine-induced gingival overgrowth commences as a papillary enlargement which is more pronounced on the labial aspects of the gingiva than the palatal or lingual surfaces.[28] The papillary enlargement increases and adjacent papillae appear to coalesce. This gives the gingival tissues a lobulated appearance [Figure 4].[13] Cyclosporine-induced gingival overgrowth has not been reported in edentulous subjects.[29] The hyperplastic gingival tissues often show marked inflammatory changes, bleed readily on probing and are generally more hyperemic than the gingival tissue from phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth.[9]


Cyclosporine A: Novel concepts in its role in drug-induced gingival overgrowth.

Ponnaiyan D, Jegadeesan V - Dent Res J (Isfahan) (2015 Nov-Dec)

Clinical presentation of cyclosporine A-induced gingival overgrowth.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696350&req=5

Figure 4: Clinical presentation of cyclosporine A-induced gingival overgrowth.
Mentions: Cyclosporine-induced gingival overgrowth commences as a papillary enlargement which is more pronounced on the labial aspects of the gingiva than the palatal or lingual surfaces.[28] The papillary enlargement increases and adjacent papillae appear to coalesce. This gives the gingival tissues a lobulated appearance [Figure 4].[13] Cyclosporine-induced gingival overgrowth has not been reported in edentulous subjects.[29] The hyperplastic gingival tissues often show marked inflammatory changes, bleed readily on probing and are generally more hyperemic than the gingival tissue from phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth.[9]

Bottom Line: Cyclosporine is a selective immunosuppressant that has a variety of applications in medical practice.Plaque-induced gingival inflammation appears to enhance this interaction.Newer molecular approaches are needed to clearly establish the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth and to provide novel information for the design of future preventive and therapeutic modalities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, SRM Dental College and Hospital, Ramapuram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

ABSTRACT
Cyclosporine is a selective immunosuppressant that has a variety of applications in medical practice. Like phenytoin and the calcium channel blockers, the drug is associated with gingival overgrowth. This review considers the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and unwanted effects of cyclosporine, in particular the action of the drug on the gingival tissues. In addition, elucidates the current concepts in mechanisms of cyclosporine-induced gingival overgrowth. Clinical and cell culture studies suggest that the mechanism of gingival overgrowth is a result of the interaction between the drug and its metabolites with susceptible gingival fibroblasts. Plaque-induced gingival inflammation appears to enhance this interaction. However, understanding of the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth is incomplete at best. Hence, it would be pertinent to identify and explore possible risk factors relating to both prevalence and severity of drug-induced gingival overgrowth. Newer molecular approaches are needed to clearly establish the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth and to provide novel information for the design of future preventive and therapeutic modalities.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus