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Cyclosporine A: Novel concepts in its role in drug-induced gingival overgrowth.

Ponnaiyan D, Jegadeesan V - Dent Res J (Isfahan) (2015 Nov-Dec)

Bottom Line: Cyclosporine is a selective immunosuppressant that has a variety of applications in medical practice.Plaque-induced gingival inflammation appears to enhance this interaction.Newer molecular approaches are needed to clearly establish the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth and to provide novel information for the design of future preventive and therapeutic modalities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, SRM Dental College and Hospital, Ramapuram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

ABSTRACT
Cyclosporine is a selective immunosuppressant that has a variety of applications in medical practice. Like phenytoin and the calcium channel blockers, the drug is associated with gingival overgrowth. This review considers the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and unwanted effects of cyclosporine, in particular the action of the drug on the gingival tissues. In addition, elucidates the current concepts in mechanisms of cyclosporine-induced gingival overgrowth. Clinical and cell culture studies suggest that the mechanism of gingival overgrowth is a result of the interaction between the drug and its metabolites with susceptible gingival fibroblasts. Plaque-induced gingival inflammation appears to enhance this interaction. However, understanding of the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth is incomplete at best. Hence, it would be pertinent to identify and explore possible risk factors relating to both prevalence and severity of drug-induced gingival overgrowth. Newer molecular approaches are needed to clearly establish the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth and to provide novel information for the design of future preventive and therapeutic modalities.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Role of cyclosporine in inhibition of graft rejection: Mechanisms by which the T-lymphocytes reject the graft.
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Figure 2: Role of cyclosporine in inhibition of graft rejection: Mechanisms by which the T-lymphocytes reject the graft.

Mentions: Cyclosporine is a selective immunosuppressant with a weak antimicrobial activity[24] and can be administered orally, intramuscularly or intravenously.[25] The main use of cyclosporine is to prevent graft rejection in organ transplantation. Several studies have shown that cyclosporine selectively acts on the T-lymphocyte response, with little or no action on B lymphocytes.[26] The pharmacodynamics of cyclosporine mainly involves the T-cell response. Hence, it is essential to know the role of T-lymphocytes in graft rejection.[9] The mechanisms by which the T-lymphocytes reject the graft are shown in Figure 2.


Cyclosporine A: Novel concepts in its role in drug-induced gingival overgrowth.

Ponnaiyan D, Jegadeesan V - Dent Res J (Isfahan) (2015 Nov-Dec)

Role of cyclosporine in inhibition of graft rejection: Mechanisms by which the T-lymphocytes reject the graft.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696350&req=5

Figure 2: Role of cyclosporine in inhibition of graft rejection: Mechanisms by which the T-lymphocytes reject the graft.
Mentions: Cyclosporine is a selective immunosuppressant with a weak antimicrobial activity[24] and can be administered orally, intramuscularly or intravenously.[25] The main use of cyclosporine is to prevent graft rejection in organ transplantation. Several studies have shown that cyclosporine selectively acts on the T-lymphocyte response, with little or no action on B lymphocytes.[26] The pharmacodynamics of cyclosporine mainly involves the T-cell response. Hence, it is essential to know the role of T-lymphocytes in graft rejection.[9] The mechanisms by which the T-lymphocytes reject the graft are shown in Figure 2.

Bottom Line: Cyclosporine is a selective immunosuppressant that has a variety of applications in medical practice.Plaque-induced gingival inflammation appears to enhance this interaction.Newer molecular approaches are needed to clearly establish the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth and to provide novel information for the design of future preventive and therapeutic modalities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Periodontics, SRM Dental College and Hospital, Ramapuram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

ABSTRACT
Cyclosporine is a selective immunosuppressant that has a variety of applications in medical practice. Like phenytoin and the calcium channel blockers, the drug is associated with gingival overgrowth. This review considers the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and unwanted effects of cyclosporine, in particular the action of the drug on the gingival tissues. In addition, elucidates the current concepts in mechanisms of cyclosporine-induced gingival overgrowth. Clinical and cell culture studies suggest that the mechanism of gingival overgrowth is a result of the interaction between the drug and its metabolites with susceptible gingival fibroblasts. Plaque-induced gingival inflammation appears to enhance this interaction. However, understanding of the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth is incomplete at best. Hence, it would be pertinent to identify and explore possible risk factors relating to both prevalence and severity of drug-induced gingival overgrowth. Newer molecular approaches are needed to clearly establish the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth and to provide novel information for the design of future preventive and therapeutic modalities.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus