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Dietary sodium and iodine in remote Indigenous Australian communities: will salt-reduction strategies increase risk of iodine deficiency? A cross-sectional analysis and simulation study.

McMahon E, Webster J, O'Dea K, Brimblecombe J - BMC Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: Effective salt-reduction strategies are needed, however, as salt is a vehicle for iodine fortification, these strategies may also reduce iodine intake.Linear programming was employed to simulate potential effects of salt-reduction strategies on estimated sodium and iodine intakes.The following scenarios enabled modelling of estimated average salt intake to within recommendations: 1) 67% reduction in sodium content of bread and discretionary salt intake, 2) 38% reduction in sodium content of all processed foods, 3) 30% reduction in sodium content of all processed foods and discretionary salt intake.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wellbeing and Preventable Disease Division, Menzies School of Health Research, PO Box 41096, Casuarina, NT, 0811, Australia. e.j.mcmahon@outlook.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Excess salt intake is a global issue. Effective salt-reduction strategies are needed, however, as salt is a vehicle for iodine fortification, these strategies may also reduce iodine intake. This study examines the case of the remote Indigenous Australian population; we employed an innovative, objective method to assess sodium and iodine intakes against requirements and modelled the potential effects of salt-reduction strategies on estimated sodium and iodine intakes.

Design: Store-sales data were collected from 20 remote Indigenous community stores in 2012-14 representing the main source of food for 2 years for ~8300 individuals. Estimated average sodium and iodine intakes were compared against recommendations (nutrient reference values weighted to age and gender distribution). Linear programming was employed to simulate potential effects of salt-reduction strategies on estimated sodium and iodine intakes.

Results: Estimated average sodium intake was 2770 (range within communities 2410-3450) mg/day, far exceeding the population-weighted upper limit (2060 mg/day). Discretionary (added) salt, bread and processed meat were the biggest contributors providing 46% of all sodium. Estimated average iodine intake was within recommendations at 206 (186-246) μg/day. The following scenarios enabled modelling of estimated average salt intake to within recommendations: 1) 67% reduction in sodium content of bread and discretionary salt intake, 2) 38% reduction in sodium content of all processed foods, 3) 30% reduction in sodium content of all processed foods and discretionary salt intake. In all scenarios, simulated average iodine intakes remained within recommendations.

Conclusions: Salt intakes of the remote Indigenous Australian population are far above recommendations, likely contributing to the high prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular mortality experienced by this population. Salt-reduction strategies could considerably reduce salt intake in this population without increasing risk of iodine deficiency at the population-level. These data add to the global evidence informing salt-reduction strategies and the evidence that these strategies can be synergistically implemented with iodine deficiency elimination programmes.

Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12613000694718.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Sodium density (mg/MJ energy) of foods and drinks purchased in 20 remote Indigenous Australian communities and population weighted recommendations. Abbreviations - AI—adequate intake, MJ = megajoule, UL—Upper limit
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Fig1: Sodium density (mg/MJ energy) of foods and drinks purchased in 20 remote Indigenous Australian communities and population weighted recommendations. Abbreviations - AI—adequate intake, MJ = megajoule, UL—Upper limit

Mentions: Population-weighted NRVs are shown in Table 1. Average sodium densities of foods/drinks purchased varied between individual stores (Fig. 1), however all provided sodium at a density that exceeded the UL. Estimated average iodine intakes were within recommendations (Fig. 2).Table 1


Dietary sodium and iodine in remote Indigenous Australian communities: will salt-reduction strategies increase risk of iodine deficiency? A cross-sectional analysis and simulation study.

McMahon E, Webster J, O'Dea K, Brimblecombe J - BMC Public Health (2015)

Sodium density (mg/MJ energy) of foods and drinks purchased in 20 remote Indigenous Australian communities and population weighted recommendations. Abbreviations - AI—adequate intake, MJ = megajoule, UL—Upper limit
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696303&req=5

Fig1: Sodium density (mg/MJ energy) of foods and drinks purchased in 20 remote Indigenous Australian communities and population weighted recommendations. Abbreviations - AI—adequate intake, MJ = megajoule, UL—Upper limit
Mentions: Population-weighted NRVs are shown in Table 1. Average sodium densities of foods/drinks purchased varied between individual stores (Fig. 1), however all provided sodium at a density that exceeded the UL. Estimated average iodine intakes were within recommendations (Fig. 2).Table 1

Bottom Line: Effective salt-reduction strategies are needed, however, as salt is a vehicle for iodine fortification, these strategies may also reduce iodine intake.Linear programming was employed to simulate potential effects of salt-reduction strategies on estimated sodium and iodine intakes.The following scenarios enabled modelling of estimated average salt intake to within recommendations: 1) 67% reduction in sodium content of bread and discretionary salt intake, 2) 38% reduction in sodium content of all processed foods, 3) 30% reduction in sodium content of all processed foods and discretionary salt intake.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wellbeing and Preventable Disease Division, Menzies School of Health Research, PO Box 41096, Casuarina, NT, 0811, Australia. e.j.mcmahon@outlook.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Excess salt intake is a global issue. Effective salt-reduction strategies are needed, however, as salt is a vehicle for iodine fortification, these strategies may also reduce iodine intake. This study examines the case of the remote Indigenous Australian population; we employed an innovative, objective method to assess sodium and iodine intakes against requirements and modelled the potential effects of salt-reduction strategies on estimated sodium and iodine intakes.

Design: Store-sales data were collected from 20 remote Indigenous community stores in 2012-14 representing the main source of food for 2 years for ~8300 individuals. Estimated average sodium and iodine intakes were compared against recommendations (nutrient reference values weighted to age and gender distribution). Linear programming was employed to simulate potential effects of salt-reduction strategies on estimated sodium and iodine intakes.

Results: Estimated average sodium intake was 2770 (range within communities 2410-3450) mg/day, far exceeding the population-weighted upper limit (2060 mg/day). Discretionary (added) salt, bread and processed meat were the biggest contributors providing 46% of all sodium. Estimated average iodine intake was within recommendations at 206 (186-246) μg/day. The following scenarios enabled modelling of estimated average salt intake to within recommendations: 1) 67% reduction in sodium content of bread and discretionary salt intake, 2) 38% reduction in sodium content of all processed foods, 3) 30% reduction in sodium content of all processed foods and discretionary salt intake. In all scenarios, simulated average iodine intakes remained within recommendations.

Conclusions: Salt intakes of the remote Indigenous Australian population are far above recommendations, likely contributing to the high prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular mortality experienced by this population. Salt-reduction strategies could considerably reduce salt intake in this population without increasing risk of iodine deficiency at the population-level. These data add to the global evidence informing salt-reduction strategies and the evidence that these strategies can be synergistically implemented with iodine deficiency elimination programmes.

Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12613000694718.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus