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The hybrid non-ethylene and ethylene ripening response in kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) is associated with differential regulation of MADS-box transcription factors.

McAtee PA, Richardson AC, Nieuwenhuizen NJ, Gunaseelan K, Hoong L, Chen X, Atkinson RG, Burdon JN, David KM, Schaffer RJ - BMC Plant Biol. (2015)

Bottom Line: The promoter of SEP4/RIN was shown to be transactivated by EIN3-like transcription factors, but unlike tomato, not by SEP4/RIN itself.Transient over-expression of SEP4/RIN in kiwifruit caused an increase in ethylene production.These results suggest that the non-ethylene/ethylene ripening response observed in kiwifruit is a hybrid of both the tomato and grape ripening progression, with Phase 1 being akin to the RIN/ethylene inhibitory response observed in grape and Phase 2 akin to the RIN-associated autocatalytic ethylene response observed in tomato.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited (PFR), Mt Albert Research Centre, Auckland, New Zealand. peter.mcatee@plantandfood.co.nz.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ripening in tomato is predominantly controlled by ethylene, whilst in fruit such as grape, it is predominantly controlled by other hormones. The ripening response of many kiwifruit (Actinidia) species is atypical. The majority of ripening-associated fruit starch hydrolysis, colour change and softening occurs in the apparent absence of ethylene production (Phase 1 ripening) whilst Phase 2 ripening requires autocatalytic ethylene production and is associated with further softening and an increase in aroma volatiles.

Results: To dissect the ripening response in the yellow-fleshed kiwifruit A. chinensis ('Hort16A'), a two dimensional developmental stage X ethylene response time study was undertaken. As fruit progressed through maturation and Phase 1 ripening, fruit were treated with different concentrations of propylene and ethylene. At the start of Phase 1 ripening, treated fruit responded to ethylene, and were capable of producing endogenous ethylene. As the fruit progressed through Phase 1 ripening, the fruit became less responsive to ethylene and endogeneous ethylene production was partially repressed. Towards the end of Phase 1 ripening the fruit were again able to produce high levels of ethylene. Progression through Phase 1 ripening coincided with a developmental increase in the expression of the ethylene-unresponsive MADS-box FRUITFUL-like gene (FUL1). The ability to respond to ethylene however coincided with a change in expression of another MADS-box gene SEPALLATA4/RIPENING INHIBITOR-like (SEP4/RIN). The promoter of SEP4/RIN was shown to be transactivated by EIN3-like transcription factors, but unlike tomato, not by SEP4/RIN itself. Transient over-expression of SEP4/RIN in kiwifruit caused an increase in ethylene production.

Conclusions: These results suggest that the non-ethylene/ethylene ripening response observed in kiwifruit is a hybrid of both the tomato and grape ripening progression, with Phase 1 being akin to the RIN/ethylene inhibitory response observed in grape and Phase 2 akin to the RIN-associated autocatalytic ethylene response observed in tomato.

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Physiological changes and ethylene production in kiwifruit stored in air during late maturation and Phase 1 ripening. Fruit were harvested from 140-224 days after full bloom (DAFB; BBCH stages 79-87) and stored in air for 1, 3 or 5 days after harvest (DAH). a Soluble solids content (SSC), b. Fruit firmness, c. Flesh colour, d. Endogenous ethylene production. Dashed vertical lines show significant changes in the physiology as described in the text
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Fig2: Physiological changes and ethylene production in kiwifruit stored in air during late maturation and Phase 1 ripening. Fruit were harvested from 140-224 days after full bloom (DAFB; BBCH stages 79-87) and stored in air for 1, 3 or 5 days after harvest (DAH). a Soluble solids content (SSC), b. Fruit firmness, c. Flesh colour, d. Endogenous ethylene production. Dashed vertical lines show significant changes in the physiology as described in the text

Mentions: A two dimensional developmental stage X ethylene response time study of A. chinensis ‘Hort16A’ fruit was conducted by sequentially harvesting fruit at weekly intervals from 140 days after full bloom (DAFB) to 231 DAFB (Fig. 1). This time frame was chosen to cover kiwifruit maturation and Phase 1 ripening as described previously by Richardson et al. [33] from a mature fruit at stage 79 on the BBCH scale (80 % black seeds) to fruit undergoing on-vine softening at stage 89 (30 N firmness). Each week, a batch of 20 fruit was assessed at harvest (H) for physiological attributes such as soluble sugar content (SSC), outer pericarp colour, firmness, and ethylene emission (Fig. 2). Each week, four batches of 20 fruit were also treated with one of three concentrations of the ethylene analogue propylene (low-100; medium-1000 and high-10,000 μL.L-1) and ethylene (100 μL.L-1), for 1 day and then transferred into air. As a control, 20 fruit were left untreated. Physiological attributes of treated and untreated fruit were assessed 1, 3 and 5 days after harvest (Figs. 2, 3 and Additional file 1).Fig. 1


The hybrid non-ethylene and ethylene ripening response in kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) is associated with differential regulation of MADS-box transcription factors.

McAtee PA, Richardson AC, Nieuwenhuizen NJ, Gunaseelan K, Hoong L, Chen X, Atkinson RG, Burdon JN, David KM, Schaffer RJ - BMC Plant Biol. (2015)

Physiological changes and ethylene production in kiwifruit stored in air during late maturation and Phase 1 ripening. Fruit were harvested from 140-224 days after full bloom (DAFB; BBCH stages 79-87) and stored in air for 1, 3 or 5 days after harvest (DAH). a Soluble solids content (SSC), b. Fruit firmness, c. Flesh colour, d. Endogenous ethylene production. Dashed vertical lines show significant changes in the physiology as described in the text
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696264&req=5

Fig2: Physiological changes and ethylene production in kiwifruit stored in air during late maturation and Phase 1 ripening. Fruit were harvested from 140-224 days after full bloom (DAFB; BBCH stages 79-87) and stored in air for 1, 3 or 5 days after harvest (DAH). a Soluble solids content (SSC), b. Fruit firmness, c. Flesh colour, d. Endogenous ethylene production. Dashed vertical lines show significant changes in the physiology as described in the text
Mentions: A two dimensional developmental stage X ethylene response time study of A. chinensis ‘Hort16A’ fruit was conducted by sequentially harvesting fruit at weekly intervals from 140 days after full bloom (DAFB) to 231 DAFB (Fig. 1). This time frame was chosen to cover kiwifruit maturation and Phase 1 ripening as described previously by Richardson et al. [33] from a mature fruit at stage 79 on the BBCH scale (80 % black seeds) to fruit undergoing on-vine softening at stage 89 (30 N firmness). Each week, a batch of 20 fruit was assessed at harvest (H) for physiological attributes such as soluble sugar content (SSC), outer pericarp colour, firmness, and ethylene emission (Fig. 2). Each week, four batches of 20 fruit were also treated with one of three concentrations of the ethylene analogue propylene (low-100; medium-1000 and high-10,000 μL.L-1) and ethylene (100 μL.L-1), for 1 day and then transferred into air. As a control, 20 fruit were left untreated. Physiological attributes of treated and untreated fruit were assessed 1, 3 and 5 days after harvest (Figs. 2, 3 and Additional file 1).Fig. 1

Bottom Line: The promoter of SEP4/RIN was shown to be transactivated by EIN3-like transcription factors, but unlike tomato, not by SEP4/RIN itself.Transient over-expression of SEP4/RIN in kiwifruit caused an increase in ethylene production.These results suggest that the non-ethylene/ethylene ripening response observed in kiwifruit is a hybrid of both the tomato and grape ripening progression, with Phase 1 being akin to the RIN/ethylene inhibitory response observed in grape and Phase 2 akin to the RIN-associated autocatalytic ethylene response observed in tomato.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited (PFR), Mt Albert Research Centre, Auckland, New Zealand. peter.mcatee@plantandfood.co.nz.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ripening in tomato is predominantly controlled by ethylene, whilst in fruit such as grape, it is predominantly controlled by other hormones. The ripening response of many kiwifruit (Actinidia) species is atypical. The majority of ripening-associated fruit starch hydrolysis, colour change and softening occurs in the apparent absence of ethylene production (Phase 1 ripening) whilst Phase 2 ripening requires autocatalytic ethylene production and is associated with further softening and an increase in aroma volatiles.

Results: To dissect the ripening response in the yellow-fleshed kiwifruit A. chinensis ('Hort16A'), a two dimensional developmental stage X ethylene response time study was undertaken. As fruit progressed through maturation and Phase 1 ripening, fruit were treated with different concentrations of propylene and ethylene. At the start of Phase 1 ripening, treated fruit responded to ethylene, and were capable of producing endogenous ethylene. As the fruit progressed through Phase 1 ripening, the fruit became less responsive to ethylene and endogeneous ethylene production was partially repressed. Towards the end of Phase 1 ripening the fruit were again able to produce high levels of ethylene. Progression through Phase 1 ripening coincided with a developmental increase in the expression of the ethylene-unresponsive MADS-box FRUITFUL-like gene (FUL1). The ability to respond to ethylene however coincided with a change in expression of another MADS-box gene SEPALLATA4/RIPENING INHIBITOR-like (SEP4/RIN). The promoter of SEP4/RIN was shown to be transactivated by EIN3-like transcription factors, but unlike tomato, not by SEP4/RIN itself. Transient over-expression of SEP4/RIN in kiwifruit caused an increase in ethylene production.

Conclusions: These results suggest that the non-ethylene/ethylene ripening response observed in kiwifruit is a hybrid of both the tomato and grape ripening progression, with Phase 1 being akin to the RIN/ethylene inhibitory response observed in grape and Phase 2 akin to the RIN-associated autocatalytic ethylene response observed in tomato.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus