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Stride-related rein tension patterns in walk and trot in the ridden horse.

Egenvall A, Roepstorff L, Eisersiö M, Rhodin M, van Weeren R - Acta Vet. Scand. (2015)

Bottom Line: Stride split data (0-100 %) were analysed using mixed models technique to elucidate the left/right rein and stride percentage interaction, in relation to the exercises performed.In rising trot there was a significant difference between the two midstance phases, but not in sitting trot.Substantial between-rider variation was demonstrated in walk and trot and between-horse variation in walk.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7054, 750 07, Uppsala, Sweden. agneta.egenvall@slu.se.

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of tack (equipment such as saddles and reins) and especially of bits because of rein tension resulting in pressure in the mouth is questioned because of welfare concerns. We hypothesised that rein tension patterns in walk and trot reflect general gait kinematics, but are also determined by individual horse and rider effects. Six professional riders rode three familiar horses in walk and trot. Horses were equipped with rein tension meters logged by inertial measurement unit technique. Left and right rein tension data were synchronized with the gait.

Results: Stride split data (0-100 %) were analysed using mixed models technique to elucidate the left/right rein and stride percentage interaction, in relation to the exercises performed. In walk, rein tension was highest at hindlimb stance. Rein tension was highest in the suspension phase at trot, and lowest during the stance phase. In rising trot there was a significant difference between the two midstance phases, but not in sitting trot. When turning in trot there was a significant statistical association with the gait pattern with the tension being highest in the inside rein when the horse was on the outer fore-inner hindlimb diagonal.

Conclusions: Substantial between-rider variation was demonstrated in walk and trot and between-horse variation in walk. Biphasic rein tensions patterns during the stride were found mainly in trot.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic rein tension in trot on the left and right reins (rein L and rein R) during a stride based on data where the horse was ridden in a sitting trot (in the model; 6 riders, 15 horses, 16,968 data points) compared to b rising trot (6 riders, 18 horses, 20,198 data points), Stride percentages zero and 100 represent mid-stance of the right forelimb. Red coloured line sections in the left rein demonstrates significant differences between the left and right rein (note that scales are different)
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Fig7: Schematic rein tension in trot on the left and right reins (rein L and rein R) during a stride based on data where the horse was ridden in a sitting trot (in the model; 6 riders, 15 horses, 16,968 data points) compared to b rising trot (6 riders, 18 horses, 20,198 data points), Stride percentages zero and 100 represent mid-stance of the right forelimb. Red coloured line sections in the left rein demonstrates significant differences between the left and right rein (note that scales are different)

Mentions: Figures 5 and 6 illustrate modelled stride curves for walk overall and for turning left and right. A significantly higher rein tension in the right rein at 50 % of the stride was recorded during rising trot compared to sitting trot (Fig. 7). Given the model, this interaction was controlled for bend orientation of the horse and direction of travel. Comparing sitting to rising trot, in rising trot significantly higher rein tension in the right rein was found at 50 % of the stride (Fig. 7). The inside rein (the rein facing the inside of an arena or a circle) has higher tension than the outside rein when the horse is turning, both left and right, with the horse on the outer fore-inner hind limb diagonal (Fig. 8).Fig. 5


Stride-related rein tension patterns in walk and trot in the ridden horse.

Egenvall A, Roepstorff L, Eisersiö M, Rhodin M, van Weeren R - Acta Vet. Scand. (2015)

Schematic rein tension in trot on the left and right reins (rein L and rein R) during a stride based on data where the horse was ridden in a sitting trot (in the model; 6 riders, 15 horses, 16,968 data points) compared to b rising trot (6 riders, 18 horses, 20,198 data points), Stride percentages zero and 100 represent mid-stance of the right forelimb. Red coloured line sections in the left rein demonstrates significant differences between the left and right rein (note that scales are different)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696263&req=5

Fig7: Schematic rein tension in trot on the left and right reins (rein L and rein R) during a stride based on data where the horse was ridden in a sitting trot (in the model; 6 riders, 15 horses, 16,968 data points) compared to b rising trot (6 riders, 18 horses, 20,198 data points), Stride percentages zero and 100 represent mid-stance of the right forelimb. Red coloured line sections in the left rein demonstrates significant differences between the left and right rein (note that scales are different)
Mentions: Figures 5 and 6 illustrate modelled stride curves for walk overall and for turning left and right. A significantly higher rein tension in the right rein at 50 % of the stride was recorded during rising trot compared to sitting trot (Fig. 7). Given the model, this interaction was controlled for bend orientation of the horse and direction of travel. Comparing sitting to rising trot, in rising trot significantly higher rein tension in the right rein was found at 50 % of the stride (Fig. 7). The inside rein (the rein facing the inside of an arena or a circle) has higher tension than the outside rein when the horse is turning, both left and right, with the horse on the outer fore-inner hind limb diagonal (Fig. 8).Fig. 5

Bottom Line: Stride split data (0-100 %) were analysed using mixed models technique to elucidate the left/right rein and stride percentage interaction, in relation to the exercises performed.In rising trot there was a significant difference between the two midstance phases, but not in sitting trot.Substantial between-rider variation was demonstrated in walk and trot and between-horse variation in walk.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7054, 750 07, Uppsala, Sweden. agneta.egenvall@slu.se.

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of tack (equipment such as saddles and reins) and especially of bits because of rein tension resulting in pressure in the mouth is questioned because of welfare concerns. We hypothesised that rein tension patterns in walk and trot reflect general gait kinematics, but are also determined by individual horse and rider effects. Six professional riders rode three familiar horses in walk and trot. Horses were equipped with rein tension meters logged by inertial measurement unit technique. Left and right rein tension data were synchronized with the gait.

Results: Stride split data (0-100 %) were analysed using mixed models technique to elucidate the left/right rein and stride percentage interaction, in relation to the exercises performed. In walk, rein tension was highest at hindlimb stance. Rein tension was highest in the suspension phase at trot, and lowest during the stance phase. In rising trot there was a significant difference between the two midstance phases, but not in sitting trot. When turning in trot there was a significant statistical association with the gait pattern with the tension being highest in the inside rein when the horse was on the outer fore-inner hindlimb diagonal.

Conclusions: Substantial between-rider variation was demonstrated in walk and trot and between-horse variation in walk. Biphasic rein tensions patterns during the stride were found mainly in trot.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus