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Stride-related rein tension patterns in walk and trot in the ridden horse.

Egenvall A, Roepstorff L, Eisersiö M, Rhodin M, van Weeren R - Acta Vet. Scand. (2015)

Bottom Line: Stride split data (0-100 %) were analysed using mixed models technique to elucidate the left/right rein and stride percentage interaction, in relation to the exercises performed.In rising trot there was a significant difference between the two midstance phases, but not in sitting trot.Substantial between-rider variation was demonstrated in walk and trot and between-horse variation in walk.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7054, 750 07, Uppsala, Sweden. agneta.egenvall@slu.se.

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of tack (equipment such as saddles and reins) and especially of bits because of rein tension resulting in pressure in the mouth is questioned because of welfare concerns. We hypothesised that rein tension patterns in walk and trot reflect general gait kinematics, but are also determined by individual horse and rider effects. Six professional riders rode three familiar horses in walk and trot. Horses were equipped with rein tension meters logged by inertial measurement unit technique. Left and right rein tension data were synchronized with the gait.

Results: Stride split data (0-100 %) were analysed using mixed models technique to elucidate the left/right rein and stride percentage interaction, in relation to the exercises performed. In walk, rein tension was highest at hindlimb stance. Rein tension was highest in the suspension phase at trot, and lowest during the stance phase. In rising trot there was a significant difference between the two midstance phases, but not in sitting trot. When turning in trot there was a significant statistical association with the gait pattern with the tension being highest in the inside rein when the horse was on the outer fore-inner hindlimb diagonal.

Conclusions: Substantial between-rider variation was demonstrated in walk and trot and between-horse variation in walk. Biphasic rein tensions patterns during the stride were found mainly in trot.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Graph of raw (calibrated) rein tension data at walk (rider 8, horse 1, riding straight). Blue bars indicate the stride split
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Fig1: Graph of raw (calibrated) rein tension data at walk (rider 8, horse 1, riding straight). Blue bars indicate the stride split

Mentions: The 18 horses ridden by the six riders were ridden during 1.5–19 min in walk on short reins and for a period of 4–19 min on short reins in trot. Three riders only used rising trot while trotting, while for the others the proportion of rising trot of all time trotted varied from 43 to 99 %, median 72 %. From these time slots in total 3118 walk strides and 9308 trot strides were selected after stride split. Within-horse, the number of strides per category of defined activity varied from 3 to 500. Figures 1 and 2 demonstrate a sample of raw data for walk and trot respectively, demonstrating the variation in the rein tension signal and the localisation of the stride split. Figures 3 and 4 demonstrate the distribution of the rein tension data by rein (left/right) for the variables turns, corners, position in saddle and lateral movements in walk and trot. Table 1 demonstrates descriptive statistics (rein tension and degrees) related to nose angle direction, nose angle ROM and lengthening in trot.Fig. 1


Stride-related rein tension patterns in walk and trot in the ridden horse.

Egenvall A, Roepstorff L, Eisersiö M, Rhodin M, van Weeren R - Acta Vet. Scand. (2015)

Graph of raw (calibrated) rein tension data at walk (rider 8, horse 1, riding straight). Blue bars indicate the stride split
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696263&req=5

Fig1: Graph of raw (calibrated) rein tension data at walk (rider 8, horse 1, riding straight). Blue bars indicate the stride split
Mentions: The 18 horses ridden by the six riders were ridden during 1.5–19 min in walk on short reins and for a period of 4–19 min on short reins in trot. Three riders only used rising trot while trotting, while for the others the proportion of rising trot of all time trotted varied from 43 to 99 %, median 72 %. From these time slots in total 3118 walk strides and 9308 trot strides were selected after stride split. Within-horse, the number of strides per category of defined activity varied from 3 to 500. Figures 1 and 2 demonstrate a sample of raw data for walk and trot respectively, demonstrating the variation in the rein tension signal and the localisation of the stride split. Figures 3 and 4 demonstrate the distribution of the rein tension data by rein (left/right) for the variables turns, corners, position in saddle and lateral movements in walk and trot. Table 1 demonstrates descriptive statistics (rein tension and degrees) related to nose angle direction, nose angle ROM and lengthening in trot.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Stride split data (0-100 %) were analysed using mixed models technique to elucidate the left/right rein and stride percentage interaction, in relation to the exercises performed.In rising trot there was a significant difference between the two midstance phases, but not in sitting trot.Substantial between-rider variation was demonstrated in walk and trot and between-horse variation in walk.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7054, 750 07, Uppsala, Sweden. agneta.egenvall@slu.se.

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of tack (equipment such as saddles and reins) and especially of bits because of rein tension resulting in pressure in the mouth is questioned because of welfare concerns. We hypothesised that rein tension patterns in walk and trot reflect general gait kinematics, but are also determined by individual horse and rider effects. Six professional riders rode three familiar horses in walk and trot. Horses were equipped with rein tension meters logged by inertial measurement unit technique. Left and right rein tension data were synchronized with the gait.

Results: Stride split data (0-100 %) were analysed using mixed models technique to elucidate the left/right rein and stride percentage interaction, in relation to the exercises performed. In walk, rein tension was highest at hindlimb stance. Rein tension was highest in the suspension phase at trot, and lowest during the stance phase. In rising trot there was a significant difference between the two midstance phases, but not in sitting trot. When turning in trot there was a significant statistical association with the gait pattern with the tension being highest in the inside rein when the horse was on the outer fore-inner hindlimb diagonal.

Conclusions: Substantial between-rider variation was demonstrated in walk and trot and between-horse variation in walk. Biphasic rein tensions patterns during the stride were found mainly in trot.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus