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Vaccinate-assess-move method of mass canine rabies vaccination utilising mobile technology data collection in Ranchi, India.

Gibson AD, Ohal P, Shervell K, Handel IG, Bronsvoort BM, Mellanby RJ, Gamble L - BMC Infect. Dis. (2015)

Bottom Line: In this study, we utilised a catch-vaccinate-release approach in a canine rabies vaccination programme in 18 wards in Ranchi, India.In areas where coverage was below 70 %, catching teams were re-deployed to vaccinate more dogs followed by repeat survey.Our study demonstrated that mobile technology enabled efficient team management and rapid data entry and analysis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mission Rabies, 4 Castle Street, Cranborne, BH21 5PZ, Dorest, UK.

ABSTRACT

Background: Over 20,000 people die from rabies each year in India. At least 95 % of people contract rabies from an infected dog. Annual vaccination of over 70 % of the dog population has eliminated both canine and human rabies in many countries. Despite having the highest burden of rabies in the world, there have been very few studies which have reported the successful, large scale vaccination of dogs in India. Furthermore, many Indian canine rabies vaccination programmes have not achieved high vaccine coverage.

Methods: In this study, we utilised a catch-vaccinate-release approach in a canine rabies vaccination programme in 18 wards in Ranchi, India. Following vaccination, surveys of the number of marked, vaccinated and unmarked, unvaccinated dogs were undertaken. A bespoke smartphone 'Mission Rabies' application was developed to facilitate data entry and team management. This enabled GPS capture of the location of all vaccinated dogs and dogs sighted on post vaccination surveys. In areas where coverage was below 70 %, catching teams were re-deployed to vaccinate more dogs followed by repeat survey.

Results: During the initial vaccination cycle, 6593 dogs were vaccinated. Vaccination coverage was over 70 % in 14 of the 18 wards. A second cycle of vaccination was performed in the 4 wards where initial vaccination coverage was below 70 %. Following this second round of vaccination, coverage was reassessed and found to be over 70 % in two wards and only just below 70 % in the final two wards (66.7 % and 68.2 %, respectively).

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that mobile technology enabled efficient team management and rapid data entry and analysis. The vaccination approach outlined in this study has the potential to facilitate the rapid vaccination of large numbers of dogs at a high coverage in free roaming dog populations in India.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Map showing a representative subset of dog sightings and survey paths for surveys of Ward 44 and Ward 45. Map data ©2015 Google Maps
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Fig2: Map showing a representative subset of dog sightings and survey paths for surveys of Ward 44 and Ward 45. Map data ©2015 Google Maps

Mentions: Following completion of the initial cycle of vaccinations in each ward, a surveyor travelled around the ward by motorbike, navigating using the smartphone map to cover every street within the ward boundaries. Surveys were conducted in the morning between first light and 11 am and in the late afternoon between 3 pm and dusk. Only free roaming dogs were recorded, therefore dogs tied or confined to private property were not recorded. Each dog sighted was entered into a ‘Survey form’ on the ‘Mission Rabies’ App which included GPS location, sex and age (adult male/adult non-lactating female/adult lactating female/puppy), neuter status (ear notch present/absent), vaccination status (mark present/absent). The data was synchronized to the central server via WiFi or 3G as described above. Incorporated into the app was a ‘path tracker’ function which recorded the path travelled during the survey. If more than 70 % of sighted dogs were marked the ward was considered complete, whereas if coverage was less than 70 %, vaccination teams were directed back to the ward to vaccinate unmarked dogs and the survey to assess vaccination coverage was subsequently repeated (Fig. 2).Fig. 2


Vaccinate-assess-move method of mass canine rabies vaccination utilising mobile technology data collection in Ranchi, India.

Gibson AD, Ohal P, Shervell K, Handel IG, Bronsvoort BM, Mellanby RJ, Gamble L - BMC Infect. Dis. (2015)

Map showing a representative subset of dog sightings and survey paths for surveys of Ward 44 and Ward 45. Map data ©2015 Google Maps
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696259&req=5

Fig2: Map showing a representative subset of dog sightings and survey paths for surveys of Ward 44 and Ward 45. Map data ©2015 Google Maps
Mentions: Following completion of the initial cycle of vaccinations in each ward, a surveyor travelled around the ward by motorbike, navigating using the smartphone map to cover every street within the ward boundaries. Surveys were conducted in the morning between first light and 11 am and in the late afternoon between 3 pm and dusk. Only free roaming dogs were recorded, therefore dogs tied or confined to private property were not recorded. Each dog sighted was entered into a ‘Survey form’ on the ‘Mission Rabies’ App which included GPS location, sex and age (adult male/adult non-lactating female/adult lactating female/puppy), neuter status (ear notch present/absent), vaccination status (mark present/absent). The data was synchronized to the central server via WiFi or 3G as described above. Incorporated into the app was a ‘path tracker’ function which recorded the path travelled during the survey. If more than 70 % of sighted dogs were marked the ward was considered complete, whereas if coverage was less than 70 %, vaccination teams were directed back to the ward to vaccinate unmarked dogs and the survey to assess vaccination coverage was subsequently repeated (Fig. 2).Fig. 2

Bottom Line: In this study, we utilised a catch-vaccinate-release approach in a canine rabies vaccination programme in 18 wards in Ranchi, India.In areas where coverage was below 70 %, catching teams were re-deployed to vaccinate more dogs followed by repeat survey.Our study demonstrated that mobile technology enabled efficient team management and rapid data entry and analysis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mission Rabies, 4 Castle Street, Cranborne, BH21 5PZ, Dorest, UK.

ABSTRACT

Background: Over 20,000 people die from rabies each year in India. At least 95 % of people contract rabies from an infected dog. Annual vaccination of over 70 % of the dog population has eliminated both canine and human rabies in many countries. Despite having the highest burden of rabies in the world, there have been very few studies which have reported the successful, large scale vaccination of dogs in India. Furthermore, many Indian canine rabies vaccination programmes have not achieved high vaccine coverage.

Methods: In this study, we utilised a catch-vaccinate-release approach in a canine rabies vaccination programme in 18 wards in Ranchi, India. Following vaccination, surveys of the number of marked, vaccinated and unmarked, unvaccinated dogs were undertaken. A bespoke smartphone 'Mission Rabies' application was developed to facilitate data entry and team management. This enabled GPS capture of the location of all vaccinated dogs and dogs sighted on post vaccination surveys. In areas where coverage was below 70 %, catching teams were re-deployed to vaccinate more dogs followed by repeat survey.

Results: During the initial vaccination cycle, 6593 dogs were vaccinated. Vaccination coverage was over 70 % in 14 of the 18 wards. A second cycle of vaccination was performed in the 4 wards where initial vaccination coverage was below 70 %. Following this second round of vaccination, coverage was reassessed and found to be over 70 % in two wards and only just below 70 % in the final two wards (66.7 % and 68.2 %, respectively).

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that mobile technology enabled efficient team management and rapid data entry and analysis. The vaccination approach outlined in this study has the potential to facilitate the rapid vaccination of large numbers of dogs at a high coverage in free roaming dog populations in India.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus