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Vaccinate-assess-move method of mass canine rabies vaccination utilising mobile technology data collection in Ranchi, India.

Gibson AD, Ohal P, Shervell K, Handel IG, Bronsvoort BM, Mellanby RJ, Gamble L - BMC Infect. Dis. (2015)

Bottom Line: In this study, we utilised a catch-vaccinate-release approach in a canine rabies vaccination programme in 18 wards in Ranchi, India.In areas where coverage was below 70 %, catching teams were re-deployed to vaccinate more dogs followed by repeat survey.Our study demonstrated that mobile technology enabled efficient team management and rapid data entry and analysis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mission Rabies, 4 Castle Street, Cranborne, BH21 5PZ, Dorest, UK.

ABSTRACT

Background: Over 20,000 people die from rabies each year in India. At least 95 % of people contract rabies from an infected dog. Annual vaccination of over 70 % of the dog population has eliminated both canine and human rabies in many countries. Despite having the highest burden of rabies in the world, there have been very few studies which have reported the successful, large scale vaccination of dogs in India. Furthermore, many Indian canine rabies vaccination programmes have not achieved high vaccine coverage.

Methods: In this study, we utilised a catch-vaccinate-release approach in a canine rabies vaccination programme in 18 wards in Ranchi, India. Following vaccination, surveys of the number of marked, vaccinated and unmarked, unvaccinated dogs were undertaken. A bespoke smartphone 'Mission Rabies' application was developed to facilitate data entry and team management. This enabled GPS capture of the location of all vaccinated dogs and dogs sighted on post vaccination surveys. In areas where coverage was below 70 %, catching teams were re-deployed to vaccinate more dogs followed by repeat survey.

Results: During the initial vaccination cycle, 6593 dogs were vaccinated. Vaccination coverage was over 70 % in 14 of the 18 wards. A second cycle of vaccination was performed in the 4 wards where initial vaccination coverage was below 70 %. Following this second round of vaccination, coverage was reassessed and found to be over 70 % in two wards and only just below 70 % in the final two wards (66.7 % and 68.2 %, respectively).

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that mobile technology enabled efficient team management and rapid data entry and analysis. The vaccination approach outlined in this study has the potential to facilitate the rapid vaccination of large numbers of dogs at a high coverage in free roaming dog populations in India.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Map of Ranchi showing ward boundaries and area of study, reproduced manually in QGIS from Ranchi Municipal Corporation ward map. Map data ©2015 Google Maps
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Fig1: Map of Ranchi showing ward boundaries and area of study, reproduced manually in QGIS from Ranchi Municipal Corporation ward map. Map data ©2015 Google Maps

Mentions: Ranchi (23°22′N, 85°20′E) is the capital city of the North East Indian state of Jharkhand, with an urban human population of 1.07 million people [14]. The region has a humid subtropical climate with highest rainfall between June and September. The city is divided into 55 administrative wards (Fig. 1) and has a large free roaming dog population. Mission Rabies works in partnership with the local non-governmental organisation HOPE & Animal Trust which was established in 2000 in response to the perceived high level of suffering seen in the free roaming dog population and the lack of local veterinary services accessible to these animals. HOPE & Animal Trust focuses on sterilization of dogs and cats, and rehabilitation and rehoming of animals that cannot be safely return to their point of capture. HOPE & Animal Trust have a Memorandum of Understanding with Ranchi Municipal Corporation to conduct mass rabies vaccination and sterilization of dogs within Ranchi Municipality. Dogs included in the study were those vaccinated, marked and released (VMR) by roaming vaccination teams and those sterilized as a part of the catch-neuter-vaccinate-return (CNVR) programme which ran in parallel to the rotating vaccination work. The study period was from 5th December 2014 to 16th April 2015. During this period 94 days were spent administering rabies vaccinations.Fig. 1


Vaccinate-assess-move method of mass canine rabies vaccination utilising mobile technology data collection in Ranchi, India.

Gibson AD, Ohal P, Shervell K, Handel IG, Bronsvoort BM, Mellanby RJ, Gamble L - BMC Infect. Dis. (2015)

Map of Ranchi showing ward boundaries and area of study, reproduced manually in QGIS from Ranchi Municipal Corporation ward map. Map data ©2015 Google Maps
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696259&req=5

Fig1: Map of Ranchi showing ward boundaries and area of study, reproduced manually in QGIS from Ranchi Municipal Corporation ward map. Map data ©2015 Google Maps
Mentions: Ranchi (23°22′N, 85°20′E) is the capital city of the North East Indian state of Jharkhand, with an urban human population of 1.07 million people [14]. The region has a humid subtropical climate with highest rainfall between June and September. The city is divided into 55 administrative wards (Fig. 1) and has a large free roaming dog population. Mission Rabies works in partnership with the local non-governmental organisation HOPE & Animal Trust which was established in 2000 in response to the perceived high level of suffering seen in the free roaming dog population and the lack of local veterinary services accessible to these animals. HOPE & Animal Trust focuses on sterilization of dogs and cats, and rehabilitation and rehoming of animals that cannot be safely return to their point of capture. HOPE & Animal Trust have a Memorandum of Understanding with Ranchi Municipal Corporation to conduct mass rabies vaccination and sterilization of dogs within Ranchi Municipality. Dogs included in the study were those vaccinated, marked and released (VMR) by roaming vaccination teams and those sterilized as a part of the catch-neuter-vaccinate-return (CNVR) programme which ran in parallel to the rotating vaccination work. The study period was from 5th December 2014 to 16th April 2015. During this period 94 days were spent administering rabies vaccinations.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: In this study, we utilised a catch-vaccinate-release approach in a canine rabies vaccination programme in 18 wards in Ranchi, India.In areas where coverage was below 70 %, catching teams were re-deployed to vaccinate more dogs followed by repeat survey.Our study demonstrated that mobile technology enabled efficient team management and rapid data entry and analysis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mission Rabies, 4 Castle Street, Cranborne, BH21 5PZ, Dorest, UK.

ABSTRACT

Background: Over 20,000 people die from rabies each year in India. At least 95 % of people contract rabies from an infected dog. Annual vaccination of over 70 % of the dog population has eliminated both canine and human rabies in many countries. Despite having the highest burden of rabies in the world, there have been very few studies which have reported the successful, large scale vaccination of dogs in India. Furthermore, many Indian canine rabies vaccination programmes have not achieved high vaccine coverage.

Methods: In this study, we utilised a catch-vaccinate-release approach in a canine rabies vaccination programme in 18 wards in Ranchi, India. Following vaccination, surveys of the number of marked, vaccinated and unmarked, unvaccinated dogs were undertaken. A bespoke smartphone 'Mission Rabies' application was developed to facilitate data entry and team management. This enabled GPS capture of the location of all vaccinated dogs and dogs sighted on post vaccination surveys. In areas where coverage was below 70 %, catching teams were re-deployed to vaccinate more dogs followed by repeat survey.

Results: During the initial vaccination cycle, 6593 dogs were vaccinated. Vaccination coverage was over 70 % in 14 of the 18 wards. A second cycle of vaccination was performed in the 4 wards where initial vaccination coverage was below 70 %. Following this second round of vaccination, coverage was reassessed and found to be over 70 % in two wards and only just below 70 % in the final two wards (66.7 % and 68.2 %, respectively).

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that mobile technology enabled efficient team management and rapid data entry and analysis. The vaccination approach outlined in this study has the potential to facilitate the rapid vaccination of large numbers of dogs at a high coverage in free roaming dog populations in India.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus