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Population awareness of diabetic eye disease and age related macular degeneration in Nepal: the Bhaktapur Retina Study.

Thapa R, Bajimaya S, Paudyal G, Khanal S, Tan S, Thapa SS, van Rens G - BMC Ophthalmol (2015)

Bottom Line: Younger age group, males, literates, service holders, best corrected visual acuity >0.3 LogMAR, were each significantly associated with an increase in awareness of diabetic retinopathy.Those with diabetes,with or without DRwere significantly more aware than those not having the disease.We recommend community-based eye health education programs targeted at raising awareness of these diseases and preventive measures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology, P O Box: 561, Kathmandu, Nepal. rabathapa@live.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are among the leading causes of visual impairment and blindness in developing countries. This study aims to explore the awareness of these retinal diseases in Nepal.

Method: A population based cross-sectional study conducted among individuals 60 years and older from the Bhaktapur district of Nepal. One thousand consecutive subjects were enrolled and subjected to a structured questionnaire.

Result: Subject age ranged from 60 to 93 years with a meanof 69.5 years ± 7.1(S.D.). Males and females comprised 45.1 and 55.9 % of the population, respectively. The majority was illiterate (78.2 %), and agriculture was the predominant occupation (79.8 %). 12.1 % were aware of the effect of diabetes on the eye, and among them, 99 % were aware that diabetes was a blinding disease caused by DR.11.5 % of the subjects were aware of DR, and 10.1 % were aware that subjects with diabetes should undergo periodic eye examinations. Only 7.6 % of subjects were aware of AMD.7.5 and 7.4 % were aware about its aggravation with smoking and sunlight exposure, respectively. Younger age group, males, literates, service holders, best corrected visual acuity >0.3 LogMAR, were each significantly associated with an increase in awareness of diabetic retinopathy. Smokers and those with agricultural occupations were less aware regarding AMD. Those with diabetes,with or without DRwere significantly more aware than those not having the disease.

Conclusion: Among the Bhaktapur population, awareness of DR and AMD was only 11.5 and7.6 % respectively. Older age groups, females, illiterates, farmers, and those with poor visual acuity were less aware of these blinding diseases. We recommend community-based eye health education programs targeted at raising awareness of these diseases and preventive measures.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Prevalence of retinal disease among the study subjects (n = 1000)
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Fig1: Prevalence of retinal disease among the study subjects (n = 1000)

Mentions: Information regarding awareness was obtained in 97 % of DR cases and 93 % of AMD cases. Ages ranged from 60 to 93 years, with an average age of 69.5 years ± 7.1 S.D. More than half of the cases belonged to the 60–69 year age group. Females (55.9 %) were significantly higher (p = 0.012) as compared to males (45.1 %). Due to higher life expectancy in the females, we had more females in the study. Among the total subjects, 768 (76.8 %) were illiterate. Agriculture was the predominant occupation in 799 subjects (79.8 %) followed by housewives in 81 subjects (8.1 %),service holders in 58 subjects (5.8 %) and others in 62 subjects (6.2 %)(Table 1). Diabetes mellitus was found in 85 cases (8.5 %). Duration of diabetes ranged from 2 days to 25 years with an average duration of 6.8 years ± 5.5S.D. Almost two-thirds presented with a history of diabetes duration less than 10 years. Among the total enrolled cases, only 42 % had normal retinal findings, whereas 2 % had non-gradable fundus findings due to hazy media because of cataract. AMD was the most common retinal disease, which was found in 371 subjects (37 %). Diabetic retinopathy comprised of 27 cases (3 %), and hypertensive retinopathy was encountered in 58 cases (6 %). The rest of the106 cases (11 %) had other retinal problems (Fig. 1).Table 1


Population awareness of diabetic eye disease and age related macular degeneration in Nepal: the Bhaktapur Retina Study.

Thapa R, Bajimaya S, Paudyal G, Khanal S, Tan S, Thapa SS, van Rens G - BMC Ophthalmol (2015)

Prevalence of retinal disease among the study subjects (n = 1000)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4696239&req=5

Fig1: Prevalence of retinal disease among the study subjects (n = 1000)
Mentions: Information regarding awareness was obtained in 97 % of DR cases and 93 % of AMD cases. Ages ranged from 60 to 93 years, with an average age of 69.5 years ± 7.1 S.D. More than half of the cases belonged to the 60–69 year age group. Females (55.9 %) were significantly higher (p = 0.012) as compared to males (45.1 %). Due to higher life expectancy in the females, we had more females in the study. Among the total subjects, 768 (76.8 %) were illiterate. Agriculture was the predominant occupation in 799 subjects (79.8 %) followed by housewives in 81 subjects (8.1 %),service holders in 58 subjects (5.8 %) and others in 62 subjects (6.2 %)(Table 1). Diabetes mellitus was found in 85 cases (8.5 %). Duration of diabetes ranged from 2 days to 25 years with an average duration of 6.8 years ± 5.5S.D. Almost two-thirds presented with a history of diabetes duration less than 10 years. Among the total enrolled cases, only 42 % had normal retinal findings, whereas 2 % had non-gradable fundus findings due to hazy media because of cataract. AMD was the most common retinal disease, which was found in 371 subjects (37 %). Diabetic retinopathy comprised of 27 cases (3 %), and hypertensive retinopathy was encountered in 58 cases (6 %). The rest of the106 cases (11 %) had other retinal problems (Fig. 1).Table 1

Bottom Line: Younger age group, males, literates, service holders, best corrected visual acuity >0.3 LogMAR, were each significantly associated with an increase in awareness of diabetic retinopathy.Those with diabetes,with or without DRwere significantly more aware than those not having the disease.We recommend community-based eye health education programs targeted at raising awareness of these diseases and preventive measures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology, P O Box: 561, Kathmandu, Nepal. rabathapa@live.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are among the leading causes of visual impairment and blindness in developing countries. This study aims to explore the awareness of these retinal diseases in Nepal.

Method: A population based cross-sectional study conducted among individuals 60 years and older from the Bhaktapur district of Nepal. One thousand consecutive subjects were enrolled and subjected to a structured questionnaire.

Result: Subject age ranged from 60 to 93 years with a meanof 69.5 years ± 7.1(S.D.). Males and females comprised 45.1 and 55.9 % of the population, respectively. The majority was illiterate (78.2 %), and agriculture was the predominant occupation (79.8 %). 12.1 % were aware of the effect of diabetes on the eye, and among them, 99 % were aware that diabetes was a blinding disease caused by DR.11.5 % of the subjects were aware of DR, and 10.1 % were aware that subjects with diabetes should undergo periodic eye examinations. Only 7.6 % of subjects were aware of AMD.7.5 and 7.4 % were aware about its aggravation with smoking and sunlight exposure, respectively. Younger age group, males, literates, service holders, best corrected visual acuity >0.3 LogMAR, were each significantly associated with an increase in awareness of diabetic retinopathy. Smokers and those with agricultural occupations were less aware regarding AMD. Those with diabetes,with or without DRwere significantly more aware than those not having the disease.

Conclusion: Among the Bhaktapur population, awareness of DR and AMD was only 11.5 and7.6 % respectively. Older age groups, females, illiterates, farmers, and those with poor visual acuity were less aware of these blinding diseases. We recommend community-based eye health education programs targeted at raising awareness of these diseases and preventive measures.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus