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Long-term dietary supplementation with saury oil attenuates metabolic abnormalities in mice fed a high-fat diet: combined beneficial effect of omega-3 fatty acids and long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids.

Yang ZH, Inoue S, Taniguchi Y, Miyahara H, Iwasaki Y, Takeo J, Sakaue H, Nakaya Y - Lipids Health Dis (2015)

Bottom Line: Consumption of EPA reduced plasma lipid levels and hepatic lipid deposition, and decreased the fatty acid desaturation index in liver and adipose tissue.Consumption of LCMUFA decreased plasma non-HDL cholesterol, improved hyperinsulinemia, and decreased the fatty acid desaturation index in adipose tissue.Our results suggest that saury oil-mediated improvement of metabolic syndrome in diet-induced obese mice may possibly be due to a combined effect of n-3 PUFA and LCMUFA.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Central Research Laboratory, Nippon Suisan Kaisha, 32-3 Nanakuni 1 Chome, Hachioji, Tokyo, 192-0991, Japan. zhihong.yang@nih.gov.

ABSTRACT

Background: Pacific saury is a common dietary component in East Asia. Saury oil contains considerable levels of n-3 unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (LCMUFA) with aliphatic tails longer than 18 carbons. In our previous study, consumption of saury oil for 4 to 6 wk improved insulin sensitivity and the plasma lipid profile in mice. However, the long-term effects of saury oil on metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors remain to be demonstrated. In the current study, we examined the long-term effects of saury oil on mice fed a high-fat diet, and compared the effect of n-3 PUFA EPA and LCMUFA on MetS risk factor in diet-induced obese mice.

Methods and results: In Experiment 1, male C57BL/6 J mice were fed either a 32% lard diet (control) or a diet containing 22% lard plus 10% saury oil (saury oil group) for 18 weeks. Although no differences were found in body weight and energy expenditure between the control and saury oil groups, the saury oil diet decreased plasma insulin, non-HDL cholesterol, hepatic steatosis, and adipocyte size, and altered levels of mRNA transcribed from genes involved in insulin signaling and inflammation in adipose tissue. Organ and plasma fatty acid profile analysis revealed that consumption of saury oil increased n-3 PUFA and LCMUFA (especially n-11 LCMUFA) levels in multiple organs, and decreased the fatty acid desaturation index (C16:1/C16:0; C18:1/C18:0) in liver and adipose tissue. In Experiment 2, male C57BL/6 J mice were fed a 32% lard diet (control), a diet containing 28% lard plus 4% EPA (EPA group), or a diet containing 20% lard plus 12% LCMUFA concentrate (LCMUFA group) for 8 weeks. EPA or LCMUFA intake increased organ levels of EPA and LCMUFA, respectively. Consumption of EPA reduced plasma lipid levels and hepatic lipid deposition, and decreased the fatty acid desaturation index in liver and adipose tissue. Consumption of LCMUFA decreased plasma non-HDL cholesterol, improved hyperinsulinemia, and decreased the fatty acid desaturation index in adipose tissue. EPA accumulated mainly in liver, and LCMUFA (especially n-11 LCMUFA) accumulated mainly in white adipose tissue, suggesting their possible individual biological effects for improving MetS.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that saury oil-mediated improvement of metabolic syndrome in diet-induced obese mice may possibly be due to a combined effect of n-3 PUFA and LCMUFA.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Organ and plasma levels of MUFA in diet-induced obese C57BL/6 J mice fed the control or saury oil diet for 18 weeks. Percentages of palmitoleic acid (a), oleic acid (b) and LCMUFA (c) in total lipids of WAT, liver, duodenum, muscle, and plasma at the end of 18 weeks. Values are means ± SEM, n = 10. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 vs. control group. MWAT, mesenteric white adipose tissue; EWAT, epididymal white adipose tissue; SWAT, subcutaneous white adipose tissue
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Fig3: Organ and plasma levels of MUFA in diet-induced obese C57BL/6 J mice fed the control or saury oil diet for 18 weeks. Percentages of palmitoleic acid (a), oleic acid (b) and LCMUFA (c) in total lipids of WAT, liver, duodenum, muscle, and plasma at the end of 18 weeks. Values are means ± SEM, n = 10. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 vs. control group. MWAT, mesenteric white adipose tissue; EWAT, epididymal white adipose tissue; SWAT, subcutaneous white adipose tissue

Mentions: The fatty acid composition in WAT, liver, duodenum, muscle, and plasma reflected the composition of the oils present in the diets (Fig. 2). Although mice fed saury oil had a similar proportion of SFA compared with mice fed the control diet, total n-3 PUFA levels were higher (~0.5- to 3-fold) in each estimated organ/plasma in the saury oil group compared with the control. In contrast, saury oil consumption decreased the percentages of total MUFA (~5–20 %) and n-6 PUFA (~7–32 %) in each estimated organ/plasma. Changes in individual MUFA levels differed according to chain length (Fig. 3). Mice fed the saury oil diet had proportionally more LCMUFAs (~0.1- to 3.6-fold) and less 16:1(n-7) (~7–23 %) and 18:1(n-9) (~7–20 %) than the control diet group in each estimated organ/plasma. For individual types of LCMUFA, as compared with the control group, the changes in n-11 LCMUFA (C20:1 n-11, ~16 to 180-fold; C22:1 n-11, ~6 to 56-fold increase) were larger than than changes in n-9 LCMUFA (C20:1 n-9, ~0.2 to 0.8-fold; C22:1 n-9, ~0.4 to 2.8-fold increase) in each estimated organ/plasma (Fig. 4). Furthermore, our data showed that saury oil consumption suppressed fatty acid desaturation indexes 16:1/16:0 by ~7–15 % (P < 0.05) and 18:1/18:0 by ~11–33 % (P < 0.05) in WAT and liver (Fig. 5a), along with decreases in 16:1 and 18:1 levels.Fig. 2


Long-term dietary supplementation with saury oil attenuates metabolic abnormalities in mice fed a high-fat diet: combined beneficial effect of omega-3 fatty acids and long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids.

Yang ZH, Inoue S, Taniguchi Y, Miyahara H, Iwasaki Y, Takeo J, Sakaue H, Nakaya Y - Lipids Health Dis (2015)

Organ and plasma levels of MUFA in diet-induced obese C57BL/6 J mice fed the control or saury oil diet for 18 weeks. Percentages of palmitoleic acid (a), oleic acid (b) and LCMUFA (c) in total lipids of WAT, liver, duodenum, muscle, and plasma at the end of 18 weeks. Values are means ± SEM, n = 10. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 vs. control group. MWAT, mesenteric white adipose tissue; EWAT, epididymal white adipose tissue; SWAT, subcutaneous white adipose tissue
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4666194&req=5

Fig3: Organ and plasma levels of MUFA in diet-induced obese C57BL/6 J mice fed the control or saury oil diet for 18 weeks. Percentages of palmitoleic acid (a), oleic acid (b) and LCMUFA (c) in total lipids of WAT, liver, duodenum, muscle, and plasma at the end of 18 weeks. Values are means ± SEM, n = 10. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 vs. control group. MWAT, mesenteric white adipose tissue; EWAT, epididymal white adipose tissue; SWAT, subcutaneous white adipose tissue
Mentions: The fatty acid composition in WAT, liver, duodenum, muscle, and plasma reflected the composition of the oils present in the diets (Fig. 2). Although mice fed saury oil had a similar proportion of SFA compared with mice fed the control diet, total n-3 PUFA levels were higher (~0.5- to 3-fold) in each estimated organ/plasma in the saury oil group compared with the control. In contrast, saury oil consumption decreased the percentages of total MUFA (~5–20 %) and n-6 PUFA (~7–32 %) in each estimated organ/plasma. Changes in individual MUFA levels differed according to chain length (Fig. 3). Mice fed the saury oil diet had proportionally more LCMUFAs (~0.1- to 3.6-fold) and less 16:1(n-7) (~7–23 %) and 18:1(n-9) (~7–20 %) than the control diet group in each estimated organ/plasma. For individual types of LCMUFA, as compared with the control group, the changes in n-11 LCMUFA (C20:1 n-11, ~16 to 180-fold; C22:1 n-11, ~6 to 56-fold increase) were larger than than changes in n-9 LCMUFA (C20:1 n-9, ~0.2 to 0.8-fold; C22:1 n-9, ~0.4 to 2.8-fold increase) in each estimated organ/plasma (Fig. 4). Furthermore, our data showed that saury oil consumption suppressed fatty acid desaturation indexes 16:1/16:0 by ~7–15 % (P < 0.05) and 18:1/18:0 by ~11–33 % (P < 0.05) in WAT and liver (Fig. 5a), along with decreases in 16:1 and 18:1 levels.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: Consumption of EPA reduced plasma lipid levels and hepatic lipid deposition, and decreased the fatty acid desaturation index in liver and adipose tissue.Consumption of LCMUFA decreased plasma non-HDL cholesterol, improved hyperinsulinemia, and decreased the fatty acid desaturation index in adipose tissue.Our results suggest that saury oil-mediated improvement of metabolic syndrome in diet-induced obese mice may possibly be due to a combined effect of n-3 PUFA and LCMUFA.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Central Research Laboratory, Nippon Suisan Kaisha, 32-3 Nanakuni 1 Chome, Hachioji, Tokyo, 192-0991, Japan. zhihong.yang@nih.gov.

ABSTRACT

Background: Pacific saury is a common dietary component in East Asia. Saury oil contains considerable levels of n-3 unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (LCMUFA) with aliphatic tails longer than 18 carbons. In our previous study, consumption of saury oil for 4 to 6 wk improved insulin sensitivity and the plasma lipid profile in mice. However, the long-term effects of saury oil on metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors remain to be demonstrated. In the current study, we examined the long-term effects of saury oil on mice fed a high-fat diet, and compared the effect of n-3 PUFA EPA and LCMUFA on MetS risk factor in diet-induced obese mice.

Methods and results: In Experiment 1, male C57BL/6 J mice were fed either a 32% lard diet (control) or a diet containing 22% lard plus 10% saury oil (saury oil group) for 18 weeks. Although no differences were found in body weight and energy expenditure between the control and saury oil groups, the saury oil diet decreased plasma insulin, non-HDL cholesterol, hepatic steatosis, and adipocyte size, and altered levels of mRNA transcribed from genes involved in insulin signaling and inflammation in adipose tissue. Organ and plasma fatty acid profile analysis revealed that consumption of saury oil increased n-3 PUFA and LCMUFA (especially n-11 LCMUFA) levels in multiple organs, and decreased the fatty acid desaturation index (C16:1/C16:0; C18:1/C18:0) in liver and adipose tissue. In Experiment 2, male C57BL/6 J mice were fed a 32% lard diet (control), a diet containing 28% lard plus 4% EPA (EPA group), or a diet containing 20% lard plus 12% LCMUFA concentrate (LCMUFA group) for 8 weeks. EPA or LCMUFA intake increased organ levels of EPA and LCMUFA, respectively. Consumption of EPA reduced plasma lipid levels and hepatic lipid deposition, and decreased the fatty acid desaturation index in liver and adipose tissue. Consumption of LCMUFA decreased plasma non-HDL cholesterol, improved hyperinsulinemia, and decreased the fatty acid desaturation index in adipose tissue. EPA accumulated mainly in liver, and LCMUFA (especially n-11 LCMUFA) accumulated mainly in white adipose tissue, suggesting their possible individual biological effects for improving MetS.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that saury oil-mediated improvement of metabolic syndrome in diet-induced obese mice may possibly be due to a combined effect of n-3 PUFA and LCMUFA.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus