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Larval habitat characteristics of the main malaria vectors in the most endemic regions of Colombia: potential implications for larval control.

Conde M, Pareja PX, Orjuela LI, Ahumada ML, Durán S, Jara JA, Cañon BA, Pérez P, Beier JC, Herrera S, Quiñones ML - Malar. J. (2015)

Bottom Line: Overall, 17.5 % (195) of the potential larval habitats were found positive for different Anopheles species.The most widely distributed species was An. nuneztovari s.l., which was found mainly in human-made fishponds in Cordoba and temporary puddles in Valle del Cauca.Anopheles albimanus and An. calderoni were associated with human-made wells or excavation sites in Nariño.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, DC, Colombia. marcelaconde79@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Malaria incidence has recently decreased globally and, as malaria elimination is envisioned as a possibility by the health authorities, guidance is needed to strengthen malaria control strategies. Larval source treatment, which could complement routine vector control strategies, requires knowledge regarding the Anopheles larval habitats.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in three of the most malaria-endemic regions in Colombia. A total of 1116 potential larval habitats in 70 villages were sampled in three states located in western Colombia: Cordoba, Valle del Cauca and Nariño.

Results: Overall, 17.5 % (195) of the potential larval habitats were found positive for different Anopheles species. A total of 1683 larvae were identified belonging to seven species: Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles calderoni, Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles neomaculipalpus, Anopheles nuneztovari s.l., Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, and Anopheles triannulatus. The most widely distributed species was An. nuneztovari s.l., which was found mainly in human-made fishponds in Cordoba and temporary puddles in Valle del Cauca. Anopheles albimanus and An. calderoni were associated with human-made wells or excavation sites in Nariño. Cordoba displayed the greatest Anopheles species diversity with a total of six species (Shannon diversity index H': 1.063). Although Valle del Cauca had four species, one more than Nariño, the diversity was lower because only one species predominated, An. nuneztovari s.l. The larval habitats with the highest Shannon diversity index were lagoons (H': 1.079) and fishponds (H': 1.009) in Cordoba, excavation sites in Nariño (H': 0.620) and puddles in Valle del Cauca (H': 0.764).

Conclusions: This study provides important information regarding the larval habitats of the main malaria vectors in the most malaria-endemic regions of Colombia, which will be useful in guiding larval control operations.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) with the main characteristics associated with Anopheles larval habitats in Valle del Cauca. *The larval habitats were sampled once in different months of the year. aAn. nuneztovaris.l., bAn. pseudopunctipennis
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Fig5: Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) with the main characteristics associated with Anopheles larval habitats in Valle del Cauca. *The larval habitats were sampled once in different months of the year. aAn. nuneztovaris.l., bAn. pseudopunctipennis

Mentions: In Cordoba, An. nuneztovari s.l. larvae were found in larval habitats characterized by having vegetation, stagnant water and clear water (Fig. 3a). Anopheles triannulatus were found in fishponds used for commercial rearing of fish, the majority of which were permanent; these larval habitats had vegetation, turbid and stagnant water (Fig. 3b). Larvae of An. albimanus were found in larval habitats that were permanent, characterized by having vegetation, turbid and stagnant water (Fig. 3c). In Nariño, An. albimanus were found in puddles and excavation sites used for domestic activities, such as washing dishes, cleaning floors and even cooking, the majority of which were temporal. These larval habitats had stagnant water and vegetation (Fig. 4a). Larvae of An. calderoni were present in excavation sites used for domestic activities. These larval habitats were characterized by being permanent, having vegetation and stagnant water (Fig. 4b). In Valle del Cauca, the presence of An. nuneztovari s.l. was associated with permanent larval habitats with stagnant water and vegetation (Fig. 5a). Finally, An. pseudopunctipennis were found in fishponds and puddles without use, the majority of which were permanent. These larval habitats had stagnant water and vegetation (Fig. 5b). The type and use of larval habitats showed association in most cases, i.e., fishponds were used for rearing fish, puddles had no use, excavations were mainly used for domestic purposes, etc.; therefore, the MCA considered the variable type only to avoid redundancy for autocorrelation.Fig. 3


Larval habitat characteristics of the main malaria vectors in the most endemic regions of Colombia: potential implications for larval control.

Conde M, Pareja PX, Orjuela LI, Ahumada ML, Durán S, Jara JA, Cañon BA, Pérez P, Beier JC, Herrera S, Quiñones ML - Malar. J. (2015)

Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) with the main characteristics associated with Anopheles larval habitats in Valle del Cauca. *The larval habitats were sampled once in different months of the year. aAn. nuneztovaris.l., bAn. pseudopunctipennis
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4666185&req=5

Fig5: Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) with the main characteristics associated with Anopheles larval habitats in Valle del Cauca. *The larval habitats were sampled once in different months of the year. aAn. nuneztovaris.l., bAn. pseudopunctipennis
Mentions: In Cordoba, An. nuneztovari s.l. larvae were found in larval habitats characterized by having vegetation, stagnant water and clear water (Fig. 3a). Anopheles triannulatus were found in fishponds used for commercial rearing of fish, the majority of which were permanent; these larval habitats had vegetation, turbid and stagnant water (Fig. 3b). Larvae of An. albimanus were found in larval habitats that were permanent, characterized by having vegetation, turbid and stagnant water (Fig. 3c). In Nariño, An. albimanus were found in puddles and excavation sites used for domestic activities, such as washing dishes, cleaning floors and even cooking, the majority of which were temporal. These larval habitats had stagnant water and vegetation (Fig. 4a). Larvae of An. calderoni were present in excavation sites used for domestic activities. These larval habitats were characterized by being permanent, having vegetation and stagnant water (Fig. 4b). In Valle del Cauca, the presence of An. nuneztovari s.l. was associated with permanent larval habitats with stagnant water and vegetation (Fig. 5a). Finally, An. pseudopunctipennis were found in fishponds and puddles without use, the majority of which were permanent. These larval habitats had stagnant water and vegetation (Fig. 5b). The type and use of larval habitats showed association in most cases, i.e., fishponds were used for rearing fish, puddles had no use, excavations were mainly used for domestic purposes, etc.; therefore, the MCA considered the variable type only to avoid redundancy for autocorrelation.Fig. 3

Bottom Line: Overall, 17.5 % (195) of the potential larval habitats were found positive for different Anopheles species.The most widely distributed species was An. nuneztovari s.l., which was found mainly in human-made fishponds in Cordoba and temporary puddles in Valle del Cauca.Anopheles albimanus and An. calderoni were associated with human-made wells or excavation sites in Nariño.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, DC, Colombia. marcelaconde79@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Malaria incidence has recently decreased globally and, as malaria elimination is envisioned as a possibility by the health authorities, guidance is needed to strengthen malaria control strategies. Larval source treatment, which could complement routine vector control strategies, requires knowledge regarding the Anopheles larval habitats.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in three of the most malaria-endemic regions in Colombia. A total of 1116 potential larval habitats in 70 villages were sampled in three states located in western Colombia: Cordoba, Valle del Cauca and Nariño.

Results: Overall, 17.5 % (195) of the potential larval habitats were found positive for different Anopheles species. A total of 1683 larvae were identified belonging to seven species: Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles calderoni, Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles neomaculipalpus, Anopheles nuneztovari s.l., Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, and Anopheles triannulatus. The most widely distributed species was An. nuneztovari s.l., which was found mainly in human-made fishponds in Cordoba and temporary puddles in Valle del Cauca. Anopheles albimanus and An. calderoni were associated with human-made wells or excavation sites in Nariño. Cordoba displayed the greatest Anopheles species diversity with a total of six species (Shannon diversity index H': 1.063). Although Valle del Cauca had four species, one more than Nariño, the diversity was lower because only one species predominated, An. nuneztovari s.l. The larval habitats with the highest Shannon diversity index were lagoons (H': 1.079) and fishponds (H': 1.009) in Cordoba, excavation sites in Nariño (H': 0.620) and puddles in Valle del Cauca (H': 0.764).

Conclusions: This study provides important information regarding the larval habitats of the main malaria vectors in the most malaria-endemic regions of Colombia, which will be useful in guiding larval control operations.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus