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Sex differences in autonomic function following maximal exercise.

Kappus RM, Ranadive SM, Yan H, Lane-Cordova AD, Cook MD, Sun P, Harvey IS, Wilund KR, Woods JA, Fernhall B - Biol Sex Differ (2015)

Bottom Line: Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability, (BPV) and heart rate recovery (HRR) are measures that provide insight regarding autonomic function.Males had significantly higher resting BPV-low-frequency (LF) values compared to females and did not significantly change following exercise, whereas females had significantly increased BPV-LF values following acute maximal exercise.Males had a significantly higher HRV-LF/HF ratio at rest; however, both males and females significantly increased their HRV-LF/HF ratio following exercise.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Health and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, 111 Rivers Street, 038 HCC, Boone, NC 28608-2071 USA ; Department of Kinesiology, Nutrition, and Rehabilitation, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability, (BPV) and heart rate recovery (HRR) are measures that provide insight regarding autonomic function. Maximal exercise can affect autonomic function, and it is unknown if there are sex differences in autonomic recovery following exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine sex differences in several measures of autonomic function and the response following maximal exercise.

Methods: Seventy-one (31 males and 40 females) healthy, nonsmoking, sedentary normotensive subjects between the ages of 18 and 35 underwent measurements of HRV and BPV at rest and following a maximal exercise bout. HRR was measured at minute one and two following maximal exercise.

Results: Males have significantly greater HRR following maximal exercise at both minute one and two; however, the significance between sexes was eliminated when controlling for VO2 peak. Males had significantly higher resting BPV-low-frequency (LF) values compared to females and did not significantly change following exercise, whereas females had significantly increased BPV-LF values following acute maximal exercise. Although males and females exhibited a significant decrease in both HRV-LF and HRV-high frequency (HF) with exercise, females had significantly higher HRV-HF values following exercise. Males had a significantly higher HRV-LF/HF ratio at rest; however, both males and females significantly increased their HRV-LF/HF ratio following exercise.

Conclusions: Pre-menopausal females exhibit a cardioprotective autonomic profile compared to age-matched males due to lower resting sympathetic activity and faster vagal reactivation following maximal exercise. Acute maximal exercise is a sufficient autonomic stressor to demonstrate sex differences in the critical post-exercise recovery period.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Heart rate recovery following maximal exercise. a Heart rate recovery, raw data. b Heart rate recovery after adjusting for VO2 peak. HRR heart rate recovery, HR heart rate, bpm beats per minute, 1-min heart rate recovery in the first minute after exercise, 2 min heart rate recovery in the second minute after exercise. *p < 0.05 sex differences
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Fig2: Heart rate recovery following maximal exercise. a Heart rate recovery, raw data. b Heart rate recovery after adjusting for VO2 peak. HRR heart rate recovery, HR heart rate, bpm beats per minute, 1-min heart rate recovery in the first minute after exercise, 2 min heart rate recovery in the second minute after exercise. *p < 0.05 sex differences

Mentions: Subject descriptives are reported in Table 1. There were significant sex differences in height and VO2 peak. Age by sex frequencies are shown in Table 2. HRR (raw data) are shown in Fig. 2a and demonstrates that males, compared to females, have significantly greater HRR following maximal exercise at both minute one and two (p < 0.05). After controlling for VO2 peak, the significance between sexes was eliminated and adjusted means are shown in Fig. 2b.Table 1


Sex differences in autonomic function following maximal exercise.

Kappus RM, Ranadive SM, Yan H, Lane-Cordova AD, Cook MD, Sun P, Harvey IS, Wilund KR, Woods JA, Fernhall B - Biol Sex Differ (2015)

Heart rate recovery following maximal exercise. a Heart rate recovery, raw data. b Heart rate recovery after adjusting for VO2 peak. HRR heart rate recovery, HR heart rate, bpm beats per minute, 1-min heart rate recovery in the first minute after exercise, 2 min heart rate recovery in the second minute after exercise. *p < 0.05 sex differences
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4666049&req=5

Fig2: Heart rate recovery following maximal exercise. a Heart rate recovery, raw data. b Heart rate recovery after adjusting for VO2 peak. HRR heart rate recovery, HR heart rate, bpm beats per minute, 1-min heart rate recovery in the first minute after exercise, 2 min heart rate recovery in the second minute after exercise. *p < 0.05 sex differences
Mentions: Subject descriptives are reported in Table 1. There were significant sex differences in height and VO2 peak. Age by sex frequencies are shown in Table 2. HRR (raw data) are shown in Fig. 2a and demonstrates that males, compared to females, have significantly greater HRR following maximal exercise at both minute one and two (p < 0.05). After controlling for VO2 peak, the significance between sexes was eliminated and adjusted means are shown in Fig. 2b.Table 1

Bottom Line: Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability, (BPV) and heart rate recovery (HRR) are measures that provide insight regarding autonomic function.Males had significantly higher resting BPV-low-frequency (LF) values compared to females and did not significantly change following exercise, whereas females had significantly increased BPV-LF values following acute maximal exercise.Males had a significantly higher HRV-LF/HF ratio at rest; however, both males and females significantly increased their HRV-LF/HF ratio following exercise.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Health and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, 111 Rivers Street, 038 HCC, Boone, NC 28608-2071 USA ; Department of Kinesiology, Nutrition, and Rehabilitation, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability, (BPV) and heart rate recovery (HRR) are measures that provide insight regarding autonomic function. Maximal exercise can affect autonomic function, and it is unknown if there are sex differences in autonomic recovery following exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine sex differences in several measures of autonomic function and the response following maximal exercise.

Methods: Seventy-one (31 males and 40 females) healthy, nonsmoking, sedentary normotensive subjects between the ages of 18 and 35 underwent measurements of HRV and BPV at rest and following a maximal exercise bout. HRR was measured at minute one and two following maximal exercise.

Results: Males have significantly greater HRR following maximal exercise at both minute one and two; however, the significance between sexes was eliminated when controlling for VO2 peak. Males had significantly higher resting BPV-low-frequency (LF) values compared to females and did not significantly change following exercise, whereas females had significantly increased BPV-LF values following acute maximal exercise. Although males and females exhibited a significant decrease in both HRV-LF and HRV-high frequency (HF) with exercise, females had significantly higher HRV-HF values following exercise. Males had a significantly higher HRV-LF/HF ratio at rest; however, both males and females significantly increased their HRV-LF/HF ratio following exercise.

Conclusions: Pre-menopausal females exhibit a cardioprotective autonomic profile compared to age-matched males due to lower resting sympathetic activity and faster vagal reactivation following maximal exercise. Acute maximal exercise is a sufficient autonomic stressor to demonstrate sex differences in the critical post-exercise recovery period.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus