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The Use of Quaternary Ammonium to Combat Dental Caries.

Ge Y, Wang S, Zhou X, Wang H, Xu HH, Cheng L - Materials (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Previous studies have been struggling to develop novel anti-caries materials which might have triple benefits: good mechanical properties, antibacterial effects and remineralization potentials.Different kinds of QAMs have been proven to be effective in inhibiting the growth and metabolism of biofilms.Therefore, QAMs are promising to show significant impact on the future of restorative and preventive dentistry.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610000, China ; Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610000, China.

ABSTRACT

Resin composites and adhesives are increasingly popular in dental restorations, but secondary caries is one of the main reasons for restoration failure. Quaternary ammonium monomers (QAMs) have an anti-microbial effect and are widely used in many fields. Since the concept of the immobilized antibacterial effect was put forward, dental restorations containing QAMs have been studied to reduce secondary caries. Previous studies have been struggling to develop novel anti-caries materials which might have triple benefits: good mechanical properties, antibacterial effects and remineralization potentials. Different kinds of QAMs have been proven to be effective in inhibiting the growth and metabolism of biofilms. Combination of QAMs and other nanoparticles in resin composites and adhesives could enhance their anti-caries capability. Therefore, QAMs are promising to show significant impact on the future of restorative and preventive dentistry.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic illustration of the antibacterial mechanism of quaternary ammonium monomers.
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Figure 1: Schematic illustration of the antibacterial mechanism of quaternary ammonium monomers.

Mentions: Quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) are widely used in water treatment, food industry, textiles and surface coating because of their low toxicity and a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity [24]. The antibacterial mechanism of QAS is due to theircapability of causing bacteria lysis by binding to bacterial membranes [25–27]. When the negatively charged bacteria cells contact the positive quaternary amine charge (N+), the electric balance is disturbed and the bacterium could explode under its own osmotic pressure [25–27]. Long cationic polymers can penetrate bacterial cells to disrupt membranes, like needle bursting balloons [28,29] (Figure 1). There are numerous studies on synthesis of novel quaternary ammonium monomers [30], in order to find a compound which has several benefits, including good antibacterial effect, low cytotoxicity, without compromising mechanical properties, low cost and convenience of receipt. Antibacterial quaternary ammonium monomers have been incorporated into composite materials to inhibit plaque accumulation and secondary caries since nearly 30 years ago. In the 1970s, QAS were first incorporated into mouth rinses to inhibit oral biofilms [31,32]. In order to achieve long-term antibacterial effectiveness without compromising in mechanical properties, a concept of “immobilized bactericide” was introduced into dentistry [33,34]. Imazato et al. alsofirst incorporated a quaternary ammonium monomer into dental composite materials in 1994 [35]. Since then, different kinds of QAMs (Table 1), including 12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide (MDPB) and methacryloxylethylcetylammonium chloride (DMAE-CB), quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM), quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine (QPEI) and so on, have been synthesized and incorporated into composites, such as glass ionomer cement (GIC), etching-bonding systems, and resin composites to achieve antibacterial effect. The review summarized the previous studies of dental materials incorporated with QAM.


The Use of Quaternary Ammonium to Combat Dental Caries.

Ge Y, Wang S, Zhou X, Wang H, Xu HH, Cheng L - Materials (Basel) (2015)

Schematic illustration of the antibacterial mechanism of quaternary ammonium monomers.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4665981&req=5

Figure 1: Schematic illustration of the antibacterial mechanism of quaternary ammonium monomers.
Mentions: Quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) are widely used in water treatment, food industry, textiles and surface coating because of their low toxicity and a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity [24]. The antibacterial mechanism of QAS is due to theircapability of causing bacteria lysis by binding to bacterial membranes [25–27]. When the negatively charged bacteria cells contact the positive quaternary amine charge (N+), the electric balance is disturbed and the bacterium could explode under its own osmotic pressure [25–27]. Long cationic polymers can penetrate bacterial cells to disrupt membranes, like needle bursting balloons [28,29] (Figure 1). There are numerous studies on synthesis of novel quaternary ammonium monomers [30], in order to find a compound which has several benefits, including good antibacterial effect, low cytotoxicity, without compromising mechanical properties, low cost and convenience of receipt. Antibacterial quaternary ammonium monomers have been incorporated into composite materials to inhibit plaque accumulation and secondary caries since nearly 30 years ago. In the 1970s, QAS were first incorporated into mouth rinses to inhibit oral biofilms [31,32]. In order to achieve long-term antibacterial effectiveness without compromising in mechanical properties, a concept of “immobilized bactericide” was introduced into dentistry [33,34]. Imazato et al. alsofirst incorporated a quaternary ammonium monomer into dental composite materials in 1994 [35]. Since then, different kinds of QAMs (Table 1), including 12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide (MDPB) and methacryloxylethylcetylammonium chloride (DMAE-CB), quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM), quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine (QPEI) and so on, have been synthesized and incorporated into composites, such as glass ionomer cement (GIC), etching-bonding systems, and resin composites to achieve antibacterial effect. The review summarized the previous studies of dental materials incorporated with QAM.

Bottom Line: Previous studies have been struggling to develop novel anti-caries materials which might have triple benefits: good mechanical properties, antibacterial effects and remineralization potentials.Different kinds of QAMs have been proven to be effective in inhibiting the growth and metabolism of biofilms.Therefore, QAMs are promising to show significant impact on the future of restorative and preventive dentistry.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610000, China ; Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610000, China.

ABSTRACT

Resin composites and adhesives are increasingly popular in dental restorations, but secondary caries is one of the main reasons for restoration failure. Quaternary ammonium monomers (QAMs) have an anti-microbial effect and are widely used in many fields. Since the concept of the immobilized antibacterial effect was put forward, dental restorations containing QAMs have been studied to reduce secondary caries. Previous studies have been struggling to develop novel anti-caries materials which might have triple benefits: good mechanical properties, antibacterial effects and remineralization potentials. Different kinds of QAMs have been proven to be effective in inhibiting the growth and metabolism of biofilms. Combination of QAMs and other nanoparticles in resin composites and adhesives could enhance their anti-caries capability. Therefore, QAMs are promising to show significant impact on the future of restorative and preventive dentistry.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus