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The Impact of Wolbachia on Virus Infection in Mosquitoes.

Johnson KN - Viruses (2015)

Bottom Line: Wolbachia is a maternally inherited endosymbiont that is commonly found in insects, including a number of mosquito vector species.This discovery pointed to a potential strategy to interfere with mosquito transmission of arboviruses by artificially infecting mosquitoes with Wolbachia.This review outlines research on the prevalence of Wolbachia in mosquito vector species and the impact of antiviral effects in both naturally and artificially Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia. karynj@uq.edu.au.

ABSTRACT
Mosquito-borne viruses such as dengue, West Nile and chikungunya viruses cause significant morbidity and mortality in human populations. Since current methods are not sufficient to control disease occurrence, novel methods to control transmission of arboviruses would be beneficial. Recent studies have shown that virus infection and transmission in insects can be impeded by co-infection with the bacterium Wolbachia pipientis. Wolbachia is a maternally inherited endosymbiont that is commonly found in insects, including a number of mosquito vector species. In Drosophila, Wolbachia mediates antiviral protection against a broad range of RNA viruses. This discovery pointed to a potential strategy to interfere with mosquito transmission of arboviruses by artificially infecting mosquitoes with Wolbachia. This review outlines research on the prevalence of Wolbachia in mosquito vector species and the impact of antiviral effects in both naturally and artificially Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes.

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Cytoplasmic incompatibility induced by Wolbachia can lead to an increased number of Wolbachia-infected progeny in the population. (A) An incompatible cross arises when a male infected with Wolbachia mates with a Wolbachia-free female; (B) Crosses between parents infected with different Wolbachia strains will be incompatible when their Wolbachia strains are incompatible.
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viruses-07-02903-f001: Cytoplasmic incompatibility induced by Wolbachia can lead to an increased number of Wolbachia-infected progeny in the population. (A) An incompatible cross arises when a male infected with Wolbachia mates with a Wolbachia-free female; (B) Crosses between parents infected with different Wolbachia strains will be incompatible when their Wolbachia strains are incompatible.

Mentions: Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is a prevalent Wolbachia reproductive manipulation in insects [16], which increases the proportion of Wolbachia-infected individuals in the population. Wolbachia-infected females can successfully mate with an uninfected male or male infected with the same or a compatible Wolbachia type (see Figure 1). CI occurs when a Wolbachia-infected male mates with a female that is either not infected with Wolbachia (unidirectional CI) or infected with an incompatible type of Wolbachia (bidirectional CI) [17]. That is, “if the male is infected with an infection (type) that is not present in his mate, it is an incompatible cross” [18]. In mosquitoes, Wolbachia-induced CI skews the population toward Wolbachia-infected females. In contrast to the female gametes, Wolbachia is not present in the male sperm. The molecular events that lead to CI are not completely clear but involve changes in condensation of male chromatin in Wolbachia free zygotes and lack of mitotic synchrony between the parental chromosomes [19,20,21,22]. In diploid insects such as mosquitoes, viable progeny are not produced from these eggs. CI is rescued in Wolbachia-infected eggs, as there is a restoration of synchrony between the male and female chromosomes, therefore producing diploid Wolbachia-infected progeny [20,22]. For biological control approaches, CI can be harnessed to establish Wolbachia-infected populations in the field [23].


The Impact of Wolbachia on Virus Infection in Mosquitoes.

Johnson KN - Viruses (2015)

Cytoplasmic incompatibility induced by Wolbachia can lead to an increased number of Wolbachia-infected progeny in the population. (A) An incompatible cross arises when a male infected with Wolbachia mates with a Wolbachia-free female; (B) Crosses between parents infected with different Wolbachia strains will be incompatible when their Wolbachia strains are incompatible.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664976&req=5

viruses-07-02903-f001: Cytoplasmic incompatibility induced by Wolbachia can lead to an increased number of Wolbachia-infected progeny in the population. (A) An incompatible cross arises when a male infected with Wolbachia mates with a Wolbachia-free female; (B) Crosses between parents infected with different Wolbachia strains will be incompatible when their Wolbachia strains are incompatible.
Mentions: Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is a prevalent Wolbachia reproductive manipulation in insects [16], which increases the proportion of Wolbachia-infected individuals in the population. Wolbachia-infected females can successfully mate with an uninfected male or male infected with the same or a compatible Wolbachia type (see Figure 1). CI occurs when a Wolbachia-infected male mates with a female that is either not infected with Wolbachia (unidirectional CI) or infected with an incompatible type of Wolbachia (bidirectional CI) [17]. That is, “if the male is infected with an infection (type) that is not present in his mate, it is an incompatible cross” [18]. In mosquitoes, Wolbachia-induced CI skews the population toward Wolbachia-infected females. In contrast to the female gametes, Wolbachia is not present in the male sperm. The molecular events that lead to CI are not completely clear but involve changes in condensation of male chromatin in Wolbachia free zygotes and lack of mitotic synchrony between the parental chromosomes [19,20,21,22]. In diploid insects such as mosquitoes, viable progeny are not produced from these eggs. CI is rescued in Wolbachia-infected eggs, as there is a restoration of synchrony between the male and female chromosomes, therefore producing diploid Wolbachia-infected progeny [20,22]. For biological control approaches, CI can be harnessed to establish Wolbachia-infected populations in the field [23].

Bottom Line: Wolbachia is a maternally inherited endosymbiont that is commonly found in insects, including a number of mosquito vector species.This discovery pointed to a potential strategy to interfere with mosquito transmission of arboviruses by artificially infecting mosquitoes with Wolbachia.This review outlines research on the prevalence of Wolbachia in mosquito vector species and the impact of antiviral effects in both naturally and artificially Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia. karynj@uq.edu.au.

ABSTRACT
Mosquito-borne viruses such as dengue, West Nile and chikungunya viruses cause significant morbidity and mortality in human populations. Since current methods are not sufficient to control disease occurrence, novel methods to control transmission of arboviruses would be beneficial. Recent studies have shown that virus infection and transmission in insects can be impeded by co-infection with the bacterium Wolbachia pipientis. Wolbachia is a maternally inherited endosymbiont that is commonly found in insects, including a number of mosquito vector species. In Drosophila, Wolbachia mediates antiviral protection against a broad range of RNA viruses. This discovery pointed to a potential strategy to interfere with mosquito transmission of arboviruses by artificially infecting mosquitoes with Wolbachia. This review outlines research on the prevalence of Wolbachia in mosquito vector species and the impact of antiviral effects in both naturally and artificially Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus