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Patterns of relative magnitudes of soil energy channels and their relationships with environmental factors in different ecosystems in Romania.

Ciobanu M, Popovici I, Zhao J, Stoica IA - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: The relevance of herbivore energy channel increased with soil depth due to higher contribution of root-feeders.Ectoparasites, sedentary parasites and epidermal cell and root hair feeders were the most important contributors to the total biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores.The influence of altitude and climatic factors on percentages of abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores decreased with soil depth, whereas the influence of humus content, cation-exchange capacity and base saturation increased.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biological Research, Branch of the National Institute of Research and Development for Biological Sciences, 48 Republicii Street, 400015 Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

ABSTRACT
The percentage compositions of soil herbivorous, bacterivorous and fungivorous nematodes in forests, grasslands and scrubs in Romania was analysed. Percentages of nematode abundance, biomass and metabolic footprint methods were used to evaluate the patterns and relative size of herbivory, bacterial- and fungal-mediated channels in organic and mineral soil horizons. Patterns and magnitudes of herbivore, bacterivore and fungivore energy pathways differed for a given ecosystem type and soil depth according to the method used. The relevance of herbivore energy channel increased with soil depth due to higher contribution of root-feeders. Ectoparasites, sedentary parasites and epidermal cell and root hair feeders were the most important contributors to the total biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores. Metabolic footprint method revealed the general dominance of bacterial-based energy channel in all five types of ecosystems. The influence of altitude and climatic factors on percentages of abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores decreased with soil depth, whereas the influence of humus content, cation-exchange capacity and base saturation increased. Vegetation, altitude, climate and soil physico-chemical characteristics are important factors that influenced the abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Bi-plots of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of the relationship between environmental variables (ecosystem types, soil physico-chemical properties, climatic variables, and altitude) and the percentages of abundance, biomass, and metabolic footprint of the bacterivorous, fungivorous and herbivorous nematodes in organic horizon (A) and 0–5 cm (B) and 5–10 cm (C) layers of mineral horizon. Ordination diagrams presenting species scores (triangles) and environmental factor scores (vectors). Solid vectors indicate ecosystem types, empty vectors indicate soil physico-chemical properties, climatic variables and altitude. Ba, bacterivore; Fu, fungivore; He, herbivore; Prec, annual average precipitation; Tem, annual average temperature; TN, total nitrogen; K, available potassium content; P, available phosphorus content; HC, humus content; CEC, cation-exchange capacity; SH, total hydrolytic acidity; SB, total exchangeable base; and V, base saturation. Environmental variables of organic horizon do not include soil physico-chemical properties. Monte Carlo permutation test results for the environmental variables were shown in Table 1.
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f3: Bi-plots of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of the relationship between environmental variables (ecosystem types, soil physico-chemical properties, climatic variables, and altitude) and the percentages of abundance, biomass, and metabolic footprint of the bacterivorous, fungivorous and herbivorous nematodes in organic horizon (A) and 0–5 cm (B) and 5–10 cm (C) layers of mineral horizon. Ordination diagrams presenting species scores (triangles) and environmental factor scores (vectors). Solid vectors indicate ecosystem types, empty vectors indicate soil physico-chemical properties, climatic variables and altitude. Ba, bacterivore; Fu, fungivore; He, herbivore; Prec, annual average precipitation; Tem, annual average temperature; TN, total nitrogen; K, available potassium content; P, available phosphorus content; HC, humus content; CEC, cation-exchange capacity; SH, total hydrolytic acidity; SB, total exchangeable base; and V, base saturation. Environmental variables of organic horizon do not include soil physico-chemical properties. Monte Carlo permutation test results for the environmental variables were shown in Table 1.

Mentions: Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the first two axes of the environmental variables explained 11.7%, 11.9%, and 15.6% of the variances of the percentages of abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of bacterivores, fungivores and herbivores in organic horizon and in the 0–5 cm and 5–10 cm layers of mineral horizon, respectively (Fig. 3).


Patterns of relative magnitudes of soil energy channels and their relationships with environmental factors in different ecosystems in Romania.

Ciobanu M, Popovici I, Zhao J, Stoica IA - Sci Rep (2015)

Bi-plots of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of the relationship between environmental variables (ecosystem types, soil physico-chemical properties, climatic variables, and altitude) and the percentages of abundance, biomass, and metabolic footprint of the bacterivorous, fungivorous and herbivorous nematodes in organic horizon (A) and 0–5 cm (B) and 5–10 cm (C) layers of mineral horizon. Ordination diagrams presenting species scores (triangles) and environmental factor scores (vectors). Solid vectors indicate ecosystem types, empty vectors indicate soil physico-chemical properties, climatic variables and altitude. Ba, bacterivore; Fu, fungivore; He, herbivore; Prec, annual average precipitation; Tem, annual average temperature; TN, total nitrogen; K, available potassium content; P, available phosphorus content; HC, humus content; CEC, cation-exchange capacity; SH, total hydrolytic acidity; SB, total exchangeable base; and V, base saturation. Environmental variables of organic horizon do not include soil physico-chemical properties. Monte Carlo permutation test results for the environmental variables were shown in Table 1.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664958&req=5

f3: Bi-plots of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of the relationship between environmental variables (ecosystem types, soil physico-chemical properties, climatic variables, and altitude) and the percentages of abundance, biomass, and metabolic footprint of the bacterivorous, fungivorous and herbivorous nematodes in organic horizon (A) and 0–5 cm (B) and 5–10 cm (C) layers of mineral horizon. Ordination diagrams presenting species scores (triangles) and environmental factor scores (vectors). Solid vectors indicate ecosystem types, empty vectors indicate soil physico-chemical properties, climatic variables and altitude. Ba, bacterivore; Fu, fungivore; He, herbivore; Prec, annual average precipitation; Tem, annual average temperature; TN, total nitrogen; K, available potassium content; P, available phosphorus content; HC, humus content; CEC, cation-exchange capacity; SH, total hydrolytic acidity; SB, total exchangeable base; and V, base saturation. Environmental variables of organic horizon do not include soil physico-chemical properties. Monte Carlo permutation test results for the environmental variables were shown in Table 1.
Mentions: Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the first two axes of the environmental variables explained 11.7%, 11.9%, and 15.6% of the variances of the percentages of abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of bacterivores, fungivores and herbivores in organic horizon and in the 0–5 cm and 5–10 cm layers of mineral horizon, respectively (Fig. 3).

Bottom Line: The relevance of herbivore energy channel increased with soil depth due to higher contribution of root-feeders.Ectoparasites, sedentary parasites and epidermal cell and root hair feeders were the most important contributors to the total biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores.The influence of altitude and climatic factors on percentages of abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores decreased with soil depth, whereas the influence of humus content, cation-exchange capacity and base saturation increased.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biological Research, Branch of the National Institute of Research and Development for Biological Sciences, 48 Republicii Street, 400015 Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

ABSTRACT
The percentage compositions of soil herbivorous, bacterivorous and fungivorous nematodes in forests, grasslands and scrubs in Romania was analysed. Percentages of nematode abundance, biomass and metabolic footprint methods were used to evaluate the patterns and relative size of herbivory, bacterial- and fungal-mediated channels in organic and mineral soil horizons. Patterns and magnitudes of herbivore, bacterivore and fungivore energy pathways differed for a given ecosystem type and soil depth according to the method used. The relevance of herbivore energy channel increased with soil depth due to higher contribution of root-feeders. Ectoparasites, sedentary parasites and epidermal cell and root hair feeders were the most important contributors to the total biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores. Metabolic footprint method revealed the general dominance of bacterial-based energy channel in all five types of ecosystems. The influence of altitude and climatic factors on percentages of abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores decreased with soil depth, whereas the influence of humus content, cation-exchange capacity and base saturation increased. Vegetation, altitude, climate and soil physico-chemical characteristics are important factors that influenced the abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus