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Soil recovery across a chronosequence of restored wetlands in the Florida Everglades.

Wang Q, Li Y, Zhang M - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: The older restored wetlands (WR89 and WR96) are characterized by greater SOC and mineral nitrogen.The similar δ(13)C values of SOC and plants in the restored wetlands suggest the formation of SOC during restoration is mainly derived from the associated plants.These results indicate that the newly restored soils develop toward the soil in the UNW with time since restoration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincun Xiangshan, Beijing 100093, China.

ABSTRACT
The restoration project in the Hole-in-the-Donut of Everglades National Park in Florida, USA is to reestablish native wetlands by complete removal of the invasive plants and the associated soil. However, there is little information available about changes in properties of the newly formed Marl soils in restored wetlands. In this study, we measured soil physicochemical properties, soil enzymatic activities, and stable isotopes of carbon (δ(13)C) in plants and soil organic carbon (SOC) in an undisturbed natural wetland (UNW) and three wetlands restored respectively in 1989, 1996 and 1999 (WR89, WR96 and WR99). The older restored wetlands (WR89 and WR96) are characterized by greater SOC and mineral nitrogen. The values of soil dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities in the four wetlands follow the order: UNW > WR89 > WR96 > WR99, and are consistent with changes in vegetation coverage. The principal component analysis shows that dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities are the vital variables contributing to the soil of UNW. The similar δ(13)C values of SOC and plants in the restored wetlands suggest the formation of SOC during restoration is mainly derived from the associated plants. These results indicate that the newly restored soils develop toward the soil in the UNW with time since restoration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A biplot of principal component analysis (PC1 and PC2) of soil properties in an undisturbed natural wetland and the wetlands restored respectively in 1989, 1996 and 1999 (WR89, WR96 and WR99) in the Hole-in-the-Donut (HID), Everglades National Park.SM, soil moisture; SWC, soil water holding capacity; EC, electric conductivity; SOC, soil organic carbon; TN, total N; DH-ase, dehydrogenase activities; P-ase, phosphatase activities.
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f3: A biplot of principal component analysis (PC1 and PC2) of soil properties in an undisturbed natural wetland and the wetlands restored respectively in 1989, 1996 and 1999 (WR89, WR96 and WR99) in the Hole-in-the-Donut (HID), Everglades National Park.SM, soil moisture; SWC, soil water holding capacity; EC, electric conductivity; SOC, soil organic carbon; TN, total N; DH-ase, dehydrogenase activities; P-ase, phosphatase activities.

Mentions: Using principal component analysis (PCA), we are able to summarize the similarity and dissimilarity in soil properties in relation to the undisturbed natural wetland and the wetlands across the restoration chronosequence. The first two principle components (PC1 and PC2) explain 85.9% of the variation in the soil properties, with PC1 accounting for 69.7% and PC2 accounting for 16.2% (Fig. 3), showing that most information about soil properties was contained in the first two principle components. Biochemical variables, i.e., dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities, were positively correlated with soil moisture, water holding capacity, total N and SOC (Fig. 3). The distance between the different wetlands in the biplot of PCA shows that the soil properties of the older restored wetlands WR89 and WR96 were similar. Compared with the cluster WR99, the cluster of WR89 and WR96 is closer to the cluster UNW (Fig. 3).


Soil recovery across a chronosequence of restored wetlands in the Florida Everglades.

Wang Q, Li Y, Zhang M - Sci Rep (2015)

A biplot of principal component analysis (PC1 and PC2) of soil properties in an undisturbed natural wetland and the wetlands restored respectively in 1989, 1996 and 1999 (WR89, WR96 and WR99) in the Hole-in-the-Donut (HID), Everglades National Park.SM, soil moisture; SWC, soil water holding capacity; EC, electric conductivity; SOC, soil organic carbon; TN, total N; DH-ase, dehydrogenase activities; P-ase, phosphatase activities.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664932&req=5

f3: A biplot of principal component analysis (PC1 and PC2) of soil properties in an undisturbed natural wetland and the wetlands restored respectively in 1989, 1996 and 1999 (WR89, WR96 and WR99) in the Hole-in-the-Donut (HID), Everglades National Park.SM, soil moisture; SWC, soil water holding capacity; EC, electric conductivity; SOC, soil organic carbon; TN, total N; DH-ase, dehydrogenase activities; P-ase, phosphatase activities.
Mentions: Using principal component analysis (PCA), we are able to summarize the similarity and dissimilarity in soil properties in relation to the undisturbed natural wetland and the wetlands across the restoration chronosequence. The first two principle components (PC1 and PC2) explain 85.9% of the variation in the soil properties, with PC1 accounting for 69.7% and PC2 accounting for 16.2% (Fig. 3), showing that most information about soil properties was contained in the first two principle components. Biochemical variables, i.e., dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities, were positively correlated with soil moisture, water holding capacity, total N and SOC (Fig. 3). The distance between the different wetlands in the biplot of PCA shows that the soil properties of the older restored wetlands WR89 and WR96 were similar. Compared with the cluster WR99, the cluster of WR89 and WR96 is closer to the cluster UNW (Fig. 3).

Bottom Line: The older restored wetlands (WR89 and WR96) are characterized by greater SOC and mineral nitrogen.The similar δ(13)C values of SOC and plants in the restored wetlands suggest the formation of SOC during restoration is mainly derived from the associated plants.These results indicate that the newly restored soils develop toward the soil in the UNW with time since restoration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincun Xiangshan, Beijing 100093, China.

ABSTRACT
The restoration project in the Hole-in-the-Donut of Everglades National Park in Florida, USA is to reestablish native wetlands by complete removal of the invasive plants and the associated soil. However, there is little information available about changes in properties of the newly formed Marl soils in restored wetlands. In this study, we measured soil physicochemical properties, soil enzymatic activities, and stable isotopes of carbon (δ(13)C) in plants and soil organic carbon (SOC) in an undisturbed natural wetland (UNW) and three wetlands restored respectively in 1989, 1996 and 1999 (WR89, WR96 and WR99). The older restored wetlands (WR89 and WR96) are characterized by greater SOC and mineral nitrogen. The values of soil dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities in the four wetlands follow the order: UNW > WR89 > WR96 > WR99, and are consistent with changes in vegetation coverage. The principal component analysis shows that dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities are the vital variables contributing to the soil of UNW. The similar δ(13)C values of SOC and plants in the restored wetlands suggest the formation of SOC during restoration is mainly derived from the associated plants. These results indicate that the newly restored soils develop toward the soil in the UNW with time since restoration.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus