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Transcriptomes reveal the genetic mechanisms underlying ionic regulatory adaptations to salt in the crab-eating frog.

Shao Y, Wang LJ, Zhong L, Hong ML, Chen HM, Murphy RW, Wu DD, Zhang YP, Che J - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Genes in categories associated with ion transport appear to have evolved rapidly in F. cancrivora.Four genes involved in the regulation of body fluid levels show signs of positive selection and increased expression.Significant up-regulation occurs in several genes of F. cancrivora associated with renin-angiotensin system and aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption pathways, which relate to osmotic regulation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, and Yunnan Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Domestic Animals, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650204, China.

ABSTRACT
The crab-eating frog, Fejervarya cancrivora, is the only frog that lives near seas. It tolerates increased environmental concentrations of sodium, chloride and potassium partly by raising ion and urea levels in its blood plasma. The molecular mechanism of the adaptation remains rarely documented. Herein, we analyze transcriptomes of the crab-eating frog and its closely related saline-intolerant species, F. limnocharis, to explore the molecular basis of adaptations to such extreme environmental conditions. Analyses reveal the potential genetic mechanism underlying the adaptation to salinity for the crab-eating frog. Genes in categories associated with ion transport appear to have evolved rapidly in F. cancrivora. Both positively selected and differentially expressed genes exhibit enrichment in the GO category regulation of renal sodium excretion. In this category, the positively selected sites of ANPEP and AVPR2 encode CD13 and V2 receptors, respectively; they fall precisely on conserved domains. More differentially expressed rapidly evolved genes occur in the kidney of F. cancrivora than in F. limnocharis. Four genes involved in the regulation of body fluid levels show signs of positive selection and increased expression. Significant up-regulation occurs in several genes of F. cancrivora associated with renin-angiotensin system and aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption pathways, which relate to osmotic regulation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Expression profiles of 19 positively selected and significantly up-regulated genes in kidney (a) and in skin (b) of Fejervarya cancrivora compared to F. limnocharis.Heatmaps show distinct expression profiles of all 19 candidate genes in kidney and ventral skin. The fpkm values were normalized by log2 (fpkm+1) and each row represents a differentially expressed gene. Blue highlights ALB, EHHADH, CFL1and PLSCR1, which associate with regulation of body fluid levels, and ANPEP, which associates with negative regulation of renal sodium excretion.
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f5: Expression profiles of 19 positively selected and significantly up-regulated genes in kidney (a) and in skin (b) of Fejervarya cancrivora compared to F. limnocharis.Heatmaps show distinct expression profiles of all 19 candidate genes in kidney and ventral skin. The fpkm values were normalized by log2 (fpkm+1) and each row represents a differentially expressed gene. Blue highlights ALB, EHHADH, CFL1and PLSCR1, which associate with regulation of body fluid levels, and ANPEP, which associates with negative regulation of renal sodium excretion.

Mentions: The 19 positively selected genes that exhibited significantly increased levels of expression in the ventral skin and kidney of F. cancrivora were also screened (Figs 2d and 5). Genes ALB, EHHADH, CFL1and PLSCR1 involved in the regulation of body fluid levels exhibited significant enrichment (P = 0.0122, FDR) (Dataset 13). In addition, the renin-angiotensin system has long been regarded as an important regulator of systemic blood pressure and renal electrolyte homeostasis and generates a family of bioactive angiotensin peptides with varying biological activities2728. Here, AGT, PREP, ANPEP and CTSA were found to be up-regulated in the crab-eating frog and enriched significantly in the renin-angiotensin system pathway (P = 0.0051, FDR). Further, NR3C2, PIK3CG, PDPK1 and SCNN1G showed significant up-regulation and they were included in the aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption pathway, which was a downstream target pathway of the renin-angiotensin system.


Transcriptomes reveal the genetic mechanisms underlying ionic regulatory adaptations to salt in the crab-eating frog.

Shao Y, Wang LJ, Zhong L, Hong ML, Chen HM, Murphy RW, Wu DD, Zhang YP, Che J - Sci Rep (2015)

Expression profiles of 19 positively selected and significantly up-regulated genes in kidney (a) and in skin (b) of Fejervarya cancrivora compared to F. limnocharis.Heatmaps show distinct expression profiles of all 19 candidate genes in kidney and ventral skin. The fpkm values were normalized by log2 (fpkm+1) and each row represents a differentially expressed gene. Blue highlights ALB, EHHADH, CFL1and PLSCR1, which associate with regulation of body fluid levels, and ANPEP, which associates with negative regulation of renal sodium excretion.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664912&req=5

f5: Expression profiles of 19 positively selected and significantly up-regulated genes in kidney (a) and in skin (b) of Fejervarya cancrivora compared to F. limnocharis.Heatmaps show distinct expression profiles of all 19 candidate genes in kidney and ventral skin. The fpkm values were normalized by log2 (fpkm+1) and each row represents a differentially expressed gene. Blue highlights ALB, EHHADH, CFL1and PLSCR1, which associate with regulation of body fluid levels, and ANPEP, which associates with negative regulation of renal sodium excretion.
Mentions: The 19 positively selected genes that exhibited significantly increased levels of expression in the ventral skin and kidney of F. cancrivora were also screened (Figs 2d and 5). Genes ALB, EHHADH, CFL1and PLSCR1 involved in the regulation of body fluid levels exhibited significant enrichment (P = 0.0122, FDR) (Dataset 13). In addition, the renin-angiotensin system has long been regarded as an important regulator of systemic blood pressure and renal electrolyte homeostasis and generates a family of bioactive angiotensin peptides with varying biological activities2728. Here, AGT, PREP, ANPEP and CTSA were found to be up-regulated in the crab-eating frog and enriched significantly in the renin-angiotensin system pathway (P = 0.0051, FDR). Further, NR3C2, PIK3CG, PDPK1 and SCNN1G showed significant up-regulation and they were included in the aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption pathway, which was a downstream target pathway of the renin-angiotensin system.

Bottom Line: Genes in categories associated with ion transport appear to have evolved rapidly in F. cancrivora.Four genes involved in the regulation of body fluid levels show signs of positive selection and increased expression.Significant up-regulation occurs in several genes of F. cancrivora associated with renin-angiotensin system and aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption pathways, which relate to osmotic regulation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, and Yunnan Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Domestic Animals, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650204, China.

ABSTRACT
The crab-eating frog, Fejervarya cancrivora, is the only frog that lives near seas. It tolerates increased environmental concentrations of sodium, chloride and potassium partly by raising ion and urea levels in its blood plasma. The molecular mechanism of the adaptation remains rarely documented. Herein, we analyze transcriptomes of the crab-eating frog and its closely related saline-intolerant species, F. limnocharis, to explore the molecular basis of adaptations to such extreme environmental conditions. Analyses reveal the potential genetic mechanism underlying the adaptation to salinity for the crab-eating frog. Genes in categories associated with ion transport appear to have evolved rapidly in F. cancrivora. Both positively selected and differentially expressed genes exhibit enrichment in the GO category regulation of renal sodium excretion. In this category, the positively selected sites of ANPEP and AVPR2 encode CD13 and V2 receptors, respectively; they fall precisely on conserved domains. More differentially expressed rapidly evolved genes occur in the kidney of F. cancrivora than in F. limnocharis. Four genes involved in the regulation of body fluid levels show signs of positive selection and increased expression. Significant up-regulation occurs in several genes of F. cancrivora associated with renin-angiotensin system and aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption pathways, which relate to osmotic regulation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus