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Transcriptomes reveal the genetic mechanisms underlying ionic regulatory adaptations to salt in the crab-eating frog.

Shao Y, Wang LJ, Zhong L, Hong ML, Chen HM, Murphy RW, Wu DD, Zhang YP, Che J - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Genes in categories associated with ion transport appear to have evolved rapidly in F. cancrivora.Four genes involved in the regulation of body fluid levels show signs of positive selection and increased expression.Significant up-regulation occurs in several genes of F. cancrivora associated with renin-angiotensin system and aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption pathways, which relate to osmotic regulation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, and Yunnan Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Domestic Animals, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650204, China.

ABSTRACT
The crab-eating frog, Fejervarya cancrivora, is the only frog that lives near seas. It tolerates increased environmental concentrations of sodium, chloride and potassium partly by raising ion and urea levels in its blood plasma. The molecular mechanism of the adaptation remains rarely documented. Herein, we analyze transcriptomes of the crab-eating frog and its closely related saline-intolerant species, F. limnocharis, to explore the molecular basis of adaptations to such extreme environmental conditions. Analyses reveal the potential genetic mechanism underlying the adaptation to salinity for the crab-eating frog. Genes in categories associated with ion transport appear to have evolved rapidly in F. cancrivora. Both positively selected and differentially expressed genes exhibit enrichment in the GO category regulation of renal sodium excretion. In this category, the positively selected sites of ANPEP and AVPR2 encode CD13 and V2 receptors, respectively; they fall precisely on conserved domains. More differentially expressed rapidly evolved genes occur in the kidney of F. cancrivora than in F. limnocharis. Four genes involved in the regulation of body fluid levels show signs of positive selection and increased expression. Significant up-regulation occurs in several genes of F. cancrivora associated with renin-angiotensin system and aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption pathways, which relate to osmotic regulation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

GO classification of annotated transcriptomic genes in Fejervarya cancrivora.Three levels (Biological Process, Molecular Function and Cellular Component) were demonstrated.
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f1: GO classification of annotated transcriptomic genes in Fejervarya cancrivora.Three levels (Biological Process, Molecular Function and Cellular Component) were demonstrated.

Mentions: For F. cancrivora, 188565 transcripts with the largest contig N50s were annotated by Blastx against the protein database of the draft genome of Nanorana parkeri22. In total, 65312 contigs matched 16459 genes and these covered 75.0% of the protein-coding genes (21938) of N. parkeri (Dataset 2). The transcripts were also compared to the protein database of more distantly related Xenopus tropicalis (Ensembl, JGI_4.2.75) by using Blastx. A total of 57795 contigs of F. cancrivora matched 14106 protein-coding genes (76.5%) of X. tropicalis (Dataset 3). In total, 11548 protein-coding genes (81.9%) mapped to GO categories. We identified 55 main GO categories in three levels (23 GO terms in Biological Process, 14 GO terms in Molecular Function and 18 GO terms in Cellular Component) (Fig. 1 and Dataset 4) using WEGO23, a web tool for plotting GO annotations.


Transcriptomes reveal the genetic mechanisms underlying ionic regulatory adaptations to salt in the crab-eating frog.

Shao Y, Wang LJ, Zhong L, Hong ML, Chen HM, Murphy RW, Wu DD, Zhang YP, Che J - Sci Rep (2015)

GO classification of annotated transcriptomic genes in Fejervarya cancrivora.Three levels (Biological Process, Molecular Function and Cellular Component) were demonstrated.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664912&req=5

f1: GO classification of annotated transcriptomic genes in Fejervarya cancrivora.Three levels (Biological Process, Molecular Function and Cellular Component) were demonstrated.
Mentions: For F. cancrivora, 188565 transcripts with the largest contig N50s were annotated by Blastx against the protein database of the draft genome of Nanorana parkeri22. In total, 65312 contigs matched 16459 genes and these covered 75.0% of the protein-coding genes (21938) of N. parkeri (Dataset 2). The transcripts were also compared to the protein database of more distantly related Xenopus tropicalis (Ensembl, JGI_4.2.75) by using Blastx. A total of 57795 contigs of F. cancrivora matched 14106 protein-coding genes (76.5%) of X. tropicalis (Dataset 3). In total, 11548 protein-coding genes (81.9%) mapped to GO categories. We identified 55 main GO categories in three levels (23 GO terms in Biological Process, 14 GO terms in Molecular Function and 18 GO terms in Cellular Component) (Fig. 1 and Dataset 4) using WEGO23, a web tool for plotting GO annotations.

Bottom Line: Genes in categories associated with ion transport appear to have evolved rapidly in F. cancrivora.Four genes involved in the regulation of body fluid levels show signs of positive selection and increased expression.Significant up-regulation occurs in several genes of F. cancrivora associated with renin-angiotensin system and aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption pathways, which relate to osmotic regulation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, and Yunnan Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Domestic Animals, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650204, China.

ABSTRACT
The crab-eating frog, Fejervarya cancrivora, is the only frog that lives near seas. It tolerates increased environmental concentrations of sodium, chloride and potassium partly by raising ion and urea levels in its blood plasma. The molecular mechanism of the adaptation remains rarely documented. Herein, we analyze transcriptomes of the crab-eating frog and its closely related saline-intolerant species, F. limnocharis, to explore the molecular basis of adaptations to such extreme environmental conditions. Analyses reveal the potential genetic mechanism underlying the adaptation to salinity for the crab-eating frog. Genes in categories associated with ion transport appear to have evolved rapidly in F. cancrivora. Both positively selected and differentially expressed genes exhibit enrichment in the GO category regulation of renal sodium excretion. In this category, the positively selected sites of ANPEP and AVPR2 encode CD13 and V2 receptors, respectively; they fall precisely on conserved domains. More differentially expressed rapidly evolved genes occur in the kidney of F. cancrivora than in F. limnocharis. Four genes involved in the regulation of body fluid levels show signs of positive selection and increased expression. Significant up-regulation occurs in several genes of F. cancrivora associated with renin-angiotensin system and aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption pathways, which relate to osmotic regulation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus