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Exploring molecular variation in Schistosoma japonicum in China.

Young ND, Chan KG, Korhonen PK, Min Chong T, Ee R, Mohandas N, Koehler AV, Lim YL, Hofmann A, Jex AR, Qian B, Chilton NB, Gobert GN, McManus DP, Tan P, Webster BL, Rollinson D, Gasser RB - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: The main disease-causing agents, Schistosoma japonicum, S. mansoni and S. haematobium, are blood flukes that have complex life cycles involving a snail intermediate host.Although a draft genome sequence is available for S. japonicum, there has been no previous study of molecular variation in this parasite on a genome-wide scale.Based on the findings from this study, we propose that verifying intraspecific conservation in vaccine or drug target candidates is an important first step toward developing effective vaccines and chemotherapies against schistosomiasis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The University of Melbourne, Pathogen Genomics and Genetics Program, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease that affects more than 200 million people worldwide. The main disease-causing agents, Schistosoma japonicum, S. mansoni and S. haematobium, are blood flukes that have complex life cycles involving a snail intermediate host. In Asia, S. japonicum causes hepatointestinal disease (schistosomiasis japonica) and is challenging to control due to a broad distribution of its snail hosts and range of animal reservoir hosts. In China, extensive efforts have been underway to control this parasite, but genetic variability in S. japonicum populations could represent an obstacle to eliminating schistosomiasis japonica. Although a draft genome sequence is available for S. japonicum, there has been no previous study of molecular variation in this parasite on a genome-wide scale. In this study, we conducted the first deep genomic exploration of seven S. japonicum populations from mainland China, constructed phylogenies using mitochondrial and nuclear genomic data sets, and established considerable variation between some of the populations in genes inferred to be linked to key cellular processes and/or pathogen-host interactions. Based on the findings from this study, we propose that verifying intraspecific conservation in vaccine or drug target candidates is an important first step toward developing effective vaccines and chemotherapies against schistosomiasis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogenetic relationships of seven Schistosoma japonicum populations from different parts of China.(A) Map indicating the provenance of populations, and their relationships based on Bayesian inference (BI) analysis of (B) nucleotide sequence data representing 4,333 protein-encoding single copy orthologs (SCOs) or (C) four exonic regions within SCOs (designated Sjp_0006080, Sjp_0009700, Sjp_0068320 and Sjp_0102280). The topology of these BI trees (B,C) are the same as those obtained for independent analyses using the maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods. Absolute nodal support was achieved using each tree building method (B). Nodal bootstrap or posterior probability values are indicated in the following order: ML/MP/BI (C). Map was modified from https://commons.m.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:China_Heilongjiang_Shuangyashan.svg, and was originally created by Joowwww under the creative commons licence [ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/legalcode] and distributed via Wikimedia Commons.
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f1: Phylogenetic relationships of seven Schistosoma japonicum populations from different parts of China.(A) Map indicating the provenance of populations, and their relationships based on Bayesian inference (BI) analysis of (B) nucleotide sequence data representing 4,333 protein-encoding single copy orthologs (SCOs) or (C) four exonic regions within SCOs (designated Sjp_0006080, Sjp_0009700, Sjp_0068320 and Sjp_0102280). The topology of these BI trees (B,C) are the same as those obtained for independent analyses using the maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods. Absolute nodal support was achieved using each tree building method (B). Nodal bootstrap or posterior probability values are indicated in the following order: ML/MP/BI (C). Map was modified from https://commons.m.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:China_Heilongjiang_Shuangyashan.svg, and was originally created by Joowwww under the creative commons licence [ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/legalcode] and distributed via Wikimedia Commons.

Mentions: We used an Illumina-based sequencing approach to produce mitochondrial (mt) and nuclear genomic data sets from genomic DNA samples from S. japonicum (Supplementary Fig. 1). This effort yielded 15.5 to 19.8 Gb of high quality genomic sequence data (NCBI BioProject accession no. PRJNA286685) for each of the seven study populations, corresponding to 39- to 50-fold coverage of a reference nuclear genome for S. japonicum (Supplementary Table 1). These data were utilised to estimate genetic diversity among S. japonicum populations from seven provinces in China (Fig. 1A).


Exploring molecular variation in Schistosoma japonicum in China.

Young ND, Chan KG, Korhonen PK, Min Chong T, Ee R, Mohandas N, Koehler AV, Lim YL, Hofmann A, Jex AR, Qian B, Chilton NB, Gobert GN, McManus DP, Tan P, Webster BL, Rollinson D, Gasser RB - Sci Rep (2015)

Phylogenetic relationships of seven Schistosoma japonicum populations from different parts of China.(A) Map indicating the provenance of populations, and their relationships based on Bayesian inference (BI) analysis of (B) nucleotide sequence data representing 4,333 protein-encoding single copy orthologs (SCOs) or (C) four exonic regions within SCOs (designated Sjp_0006080, Sjp_0009700, Sjp_0068320 and Sjp_0102280). The topology of these BI trees (B,C) are the same as those obtained for independent analyses using the maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods. Absolute nodal support was achieved using each tree building method (B). Nodal bootstrap or posterior probability values are indicated in the following order: ML/MP/BI (C). Map was modified from https://commons.m.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:China_Heilongjiang_Shuangyashan.svg, and was originally created by Joowwww under the creative commons licence [ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/legalcode] and distributed via Wikimedia Commons.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664899&req=5

f1: Phylogenetic relationships of seven Schistosoma japonicum populations from different parts of China.(A) Map indicating the provenance of populations, and their relationships based on Bayesian inference (BI) analysis of (B) nucleotide sequence data representing 4,333 protein-encoding single copy orthologs (SCOs) or (C) four exonic regions within SCOs (designated Sjp_0006080, Sjp_0009700, Sjp_0068320 and Sjp_0102280). The topology of these BI trees (B,C) are the same as those obtained for independent analyses using the maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods. Absolute nodal support was achieved using each tree building method (B). Nodal bootstrap or posterior probability values are indicated in the following order: ML/MP/BI (C). Map was modified from https://commons.m.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:China_Heilongjiang_Shuangyashan.svg, and was originally created by Joowwww under the creative commons licence [ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/legalcode] and distributed via Wikimedia Commons.
Mentions: We used an Illumina-based sequencing approach to produce mitochondrial (mt) and nuclear genomic data sets from genomic DNA samples from S. japonicum (Supplementary Fig. 1). This effort yielded 15.5 to 19.8 Gb of high quality genomic sequence data (NCBI BioProject accession no. PRJNA286685) for each of the seven study populations, corresponding to 39- to 50-fold coverage of a reference nuclear genome for S. japonicum (Supplementary Table 1). These data were utilised to estimate genetic diversity among S. japonicum populations from seven provinces in China (Fig. 1A).

Bottom Line: The main disease-causing agents, Schistosoma japonicum, S. mansoni and S. haematobium, are blood flukes that have complex life cycles involving a snail intermediate host.Although a draft genome sequence is available for S. japonicum, there has been no previous study of molecular variation in this parasite on a genome-wide scale.Based on the findings from this study, we propose that verifying intraspecific conservation in vaccine or drug target candidates is an important first step toward developing effective vaccines and chemotherapies against schistosomiasis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The University of Melbourne, Pathogen Genomics and Genetics Program, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease that affects more than 200 million people worldwide. The main disease-causing agents, Schistosoma japonicum, S. mansoni and S. haematobium, are blood flukes that have complex life cycles involving a snail intermediate host. In Asia, S. japonicum causes hepatointestinal disease (schistosomiasis japonica) and is challenging to control due to a broad distribution of its snail hosts and range of animal reservoir hosts. In China, extensive efforts have been underway to control this parasite, but genetic variability in S. japonicum populations could represent an obstacle to eliminating schistosomiasis japonica. Although a draft genome sequence is available for S. japonicum, there has been no previous study of molecular variation in this parasite on a genome-wide scale. In this study, we conducted the first deep genomic exploration of seven S. japonicum populations from mainland China, constructed phylogenies using mitochondrial and nuclear genomic data sets, and established considerable variation between some of the populations in genes inferred to be linked to key cellular processes and/or pathogen-host interactions. Based on the findings from this study, we propose that verifying intraspecific conservation in vaccine or drug target candidates is an important first step toward developing effective vaccines and chemotherapies against schistosomiasis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus