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Molecular mechanisms of Tetranychus urticae chemical adaptation in hop fields.

Piraneo TG, Bull J, Morales MA, Lavine LC, Walsh DB, Zhu F - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Here, we investigated resistance ratios and distribution of multiple resistance-associated mutations in field collected T. urticae samples compared with a susceptible population.However, P450-mediated detoxification was observed and is a putative mechanism for abamectin resistance.Molecular mechanisms of T. urticae chemical adaptation in hopyards is imperative new information that will help growers develop effective and sustainable management strategies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center, Washington State University, Prosser, WA 99350, USA.

ABSTRACT
The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch is a major pest that feeds on >1,100 plant species. Many perennial crops including hop (Humulus lupulus) are routinely plagued by T. urticae infestations. Hop is a specialty crop in Pacific Northwest states, where 99% of all U.S. hops are produced. To suppress T. urticae, growers often apply various acaricides. Unfortunately T. urticae has been documented to quickly develop resistance to these acaricides which directly cause control failures. Here, we investigated resistance ratios and distribution of multiple resistance-associated mutations in field collected T. urticae samples compared with a susceptible population. Our research revealed that a mutation in the cytochrome b gene (G126S) in 35% tested T. urticae populations and a mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene (F1538I) in 66.7% populations may contribute resistance to bifenazate and bifenthrin, respectively. No mutations were detected in Glutamate-gated chloride channel subunits tested, suggesting target site insensitivity may not be important in our hop T. urticae resistance to abamectin. However, P450-mediated detoxification was observed and is a putative mechanism for abamectin resistance. Molecular mechanisms of T. urticae chemical adaptation in hopyards is imperative new information that will help growers develop effective and sustainable management strategies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The acaricide spray model at hopyards during hop season in 2013.Several acaricides with different mode of actions were applied to control T. urticae. Among them, abamectin, bifenazate, and bifenthrin were commercially important acaricides used in hopyards10.
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f1: The acaricide spray model at hopyards during hop season in 2013.Several acaricides with different mode of actions were applied to control T. urticae. Among them, abamectin, bifenazate, and bifenthrin were commercially important acaricides used in hopyards10.

Mentions: In order to design the most effective and sustainable T. urticae management strategy, our long-term goals include revealing the mechanisms underlying the chemical adaptation of T. urticae in the field. We initially calculated the baseline concentration response curves of T. urticae population susceptible to three acaricides: abamectin, bifenazate, and bifenthrin. We chose these three compounds because they are currently the most commonly used acaricides for T. urticae control in hopyards according to the spray records we investigated (Fig. 1). Recently, field control failures with these acaricides have been observed in the Yakima Valley of Washington State8. We collected 31 T. urticae field populations from hopyards in the Yakima Valley during summer 2013 (Fig. 2) and evaluated the acaricide resistance levels in most of these populations compared with a susceptible strain. We also investigated the distribution pattern of resistance-associated target site mutations in these field collected T. urticae populations. Finally, the relative expressions of several detoxification-related P450 genes in field T. urticae populations were compared with that of the susceptible population.


Molecular mechanisms of Tetranychus urticae chemical adaptation in hop fields.

Piraneo TG, Bull J, Morales MA, Lavine LC, Walsh DB, Zhu F - Sci Rep (2015)

The acaricide spray model at hopyards during hop season in 2013.Several acaricides with different mode of actions were applied to control T. urticae. Among them, abamectin, bifenazate, and bifenthrin were commercially important acaricides used in hopyards10.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664861&req=5

f1: The acaricide spray model at hopyards during hop season in 2013.Several acaricides with different mode of actions were applied to control T. urticae. Among them, abamectin, bifenazate, and bifenthrin were commercially important acaricides used in hopyards10.
Mentions: In order to design the most effective and sustainable T. urticae management strategy, our long-term goals include revealing the mechanisms underlying the chemical adaptation of T. urticae in the field. We initially calculated the baseline concentration response curves of T. urticae population susceptible to three acaricides: abamectin, bifenazate, and bifenthrin. We chose these three compounds because they are currently the most commonly used acaricides for T. urticae control in hopyards according to the spray records we investigated (Fig. 1). Recently, field control failures with these acaricides have been observed in the Yakima Valley of Washington State8. We collected 31 T. urticae field populations from hopyards in the Yakima Valley during summer 2013 (Fig. 2) and evaluated the acaricide resistance levels in most of these populations compared with a susceptible strain. We also investigated the distribution pattern of resistance-associated target site mutations in these field collected T. urticae populations. Finally, the relative expressions of several detoxification-related P450 genes in field T. urticae populations were compared with that of the susceptible population.

Bottom Line: Here, we investigated resistance ratios and distribution of multiple resistance-associated mutations in field collected T. urticae samples compared with a susceptible population.However, P450-mediated detoxification was observed and is a putative mechanism for abamectin resistance.Molecular mechanisms of T. urticae chemical adaptation in hopyards is imperative new information that will help growers develop effective and sustainable management strategies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center, Washington State University, Prosser, WA 99350, USA.

ABSTRACT
The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch is a major pest that feeds on >1,100 plant species. Many perennial crops including hop (Humulus lupulus) are routinely plagued by T. urticae infestations. Hop is a specialty crop in Pacific Northwest states, where 99% of all U.S. hops are produced. To suppress T. urticae, growers often apply various acaricides. Unfortunately T. urticae has been documented to quickly develop resistance to these acaricides which directly cause control failures. Here, we investigated resistance ratios and distribution of multiple resistance-associated mutations in field collected T. urticae samples compared with a susceptible population. Our research revealed that a mutation in the cytochrome b gene (G126S) in 35% tested T. urticae populations and a mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene (F1538I) in 66.7% populations may contribute resistance to bifenazate and bifenthrin, respectively. No mutations were detected in Glutamate-gated chloride channel subunits tested, suggesting target site insensitivity may not be important in our hop T. urticae resistance to abamectin. However, P450-mediated detoxification was observed and is a putative mechanism for abamectin resistance. Molecular mechanisms of T. urticae chemical adaptation in hopyards is imperative new information that will help growers develop effective and sustainable management strategies.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus