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Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein and skin changes (POEMS syndrome): a paraneoplastic syndrome.

Kumar S, Sharma S - Oxf Med Case Reports (2015)

Bottom Line: Immunoelectrophoresis using the immunofixation method revealed lambda chain monoclonal gammopathy.The patient was given radiotherapy, followed by a combination therapy of melphalan and dexamethasone.We emphasize the importance of recognizing a challenging diagnosis of a rare disease, which is shown to be treatment responsive.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurology , Sawai Man Singh Medical College , Jaipur, Rajasthan , India.

ABSTRACT
POEMS syndrome (Crow-Fukase syndrome) is a rare paraneoplastic disorder. It is characterized by peripheral neuropathy, elevated vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs), monoclonal gammopathy, sclerotic bone lesions and Castleman disease. Other important clinical features are organomegaly, edema, ascites, papilledema, endocrinopathy, skin changes and thrombocytosis. A high index of suspicion, a detailed clinical history and examination followed by appropriate laboratory investigations like VEGF level, radiological skeletal survey and bone marrow biopsy are required to diagnose POEMS syndrome. We report a case of POEMS syndrome who presented with insidious onset, progressive sensorimotor polyneuropathy, pedal edema, ascites, hepatomegaly, skin changes and hypothyroidism. X-ray of the pelvis showed osteosclerotic lesions. Immunoelectrophoresis using the immunofixation method revealed lambda chain monoclonal gammopathy. The patient was given radiotherapy, followed by a combination therapy of melphalan and dexamethasone. We emphasize the importance of recognizing a challenging diagnosis of a rare disease, which is shown to be treatment responsive.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

X-ray of the pelvis showing multiple sclerotic lesions over right iliac crest (thin arrow) and one large osteosclerotic lesion (thick arrow) over the neck of left femur.
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OMV023F2: X-ray of the pelvis showing multiple sclerotic lesions over right iliac crest (thin arrow) and one large osteosclerotic lesion (thick arrow) over the neck of left femur.

Mentions: Full blood count, liver and renal function tests, muscle enzymes (creatine phosphokinase), serum ferritin and vitamin B12 level were normal. Serum total protein was 7.1 g/dl, albumin 3 g/dl, globulin 4.1 g/dl and A : G ratio 1 : 1.3. Fasting and postprandial blood sugar levels were normal. Thyroid function tests revealed hypothyroidism (TSH level: 16.62 mIU/l and normal TSH level 0.4–4 mIU/l). Luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels were 15 (1.8–8.6 IU/l) and 111 (300–1000 ng/dl), respectively. Antinuclear antibody, rheumatoid factor, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test for human immunodeficiency virus, serology for hepatitis B and C were negative. Abdominal ultrasonography showed hepatomegaly (16 cm), moderate ascites and multiple enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes along the iliac vessels. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of mesenteric lymph node was inconclusive. Ascitic fluid was an exudate (SAAG < 1.1). Ascitic fluid adenosine deaminase level was normal and no malignant cells were observed. Nerve conduction studies showed sensorimotor demyelinating and axonal type polyneuropathy in both upper (median and ulnar nerves) and lower limbs (peroneal, tibial and sural nerves). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis was normal. X-ray of the pelvis showed multiple osteosclerotic lesions involving head of left femur and right iliac crest (Fig. 2). X-ray of the skull and spine was normal. The serum protein electrophoresis showed gamma globulinemia with no monoclonal M spike. Immunoelectrophoresis using the immunofixation method revealed a monoclonal IgG lambda band. The bone marrow biopsy from right iliac crest showed large atypical plasma cells in the range of 6–8% (Fig. 3). The patient was diagnosed with POEMS syndrome. He was given radiotherapy, followed by a combination therapy of melphalan (16 mg/m2) and dexamethasone. At 6 months and 1-year follow-up, the patient has no worsening of symptoms.Figure 2:


Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein and skin changes (POEMS syndrome): a paraneoplastic syndrome.

Kumar S, Sharma S - Oxf Med Case Reports (2015)

X-ray of the pelvis showing multiple sclerotic lesions over right iliac crest (thin arrow) and one large osteosclerotic lesion (thick arrow) over the neck of left femur.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664845&req=5

OMV023F2: X-ray of the pelvis showing multiple sclerotic lesions over right iliac crest (thin arrow) and one large osteosclerotic lesion (thick arrow) over the neck of left femur.
Mentions: Full blood count, liver and renal function tests, muscle enzymes (creatine phosphokinase), serum ferritin and vitamin B12 level were normal. Serum total protein was 7.1 g/dl, albumin 3 g/dl, globulin 4.1 g/dl and A : G ratio 1 : 1.3. Fasting and postprandial blood sugar levels were normal. Thyroid function tests revealed hypothyroidism (TSH level: 16.62 mIU/l and normal TSH level 0.4–4 mIU/l). Luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels were 15 (1.8–8.6 IU/l) and 111 (300–1000 ng/dl), respectively. Antinuclear antibody, rheumatoid factor, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test for human immunodeficiency virus, serology for hepatitis B and C were negative. Abdominal ultrasonography showed hepatomegaly (16 cm), moderate ascites and multiple enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes along the iliac vessels. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of mesenteric lymph node was inconclusive. Ascitic fluid was an exudate (SAAG < 1.1). Ascitic fluid adenosine deaminase level was normal and no malignant cells were observed. Nerve conduction studies showed sensorimotor demyelinating and axonal type polyneuropathy in both upper (median and ulnar nerves) and lower limbs (peroneal, tibial and sural nerves). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis was normal. X-ray of the pelvis showed multiple osteosclerotic lesions involving head of left femur and right iliac crest (Fig. 2). X-ray of the skull and spine was normal. The serum protein electrophoresis showed gamma globulinemia with no monoclonal M spike. Immunoelectrophoresis using the immunofixation method revealed a monoclonal IgG lambda band. The bone marrow biopsy from right iliac crest showed large atypical plasma cells in the range of 6–8% (Fig. 3). The patient was diagnosed with POEMS syndrome. He was given radiotherapy, followed by a combination therapy of melphalan (16 mg/m2) and dexamethasone. At 6 months and 1-year follow-up, the patient has no worsening of symptoms.Figure 2:

Bottom Line: Immunoelectrophoresis using the immunofixation method revealed lambda chain monoclonal gammopathy.The patient was given radiotherapy, followed by a combination therapy of melphalan and dexamethasone.We emphasize the importance of recognizing a challenging diagnosis of a rare disease, which is shown to be treatment responsive.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurology , Sawai Man Singh Medical College , Jaipur, Rajasthan , India.

ABSTRACT
POEMS syndrome (Crow-Fukase syndrome) is a rare paraneoplastic disorder. It is characterized by peripheral neuropathy, elevated vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs), monoclonal gammopathy, sclerotic bone lesions and Castleman disease. Other important clinical features are organomegaly, edema, ascites, papilledema, endocrinopathy, skin changes and thrombocytosis. A high index of suspicion, a detailed clinical history and examination followed by appropriate laboratory investigations like VEGF level, radiological skeletal survey and bone marrow biopsy are required to diagnose POEMS syndrome. We report a case of POEMS syndrome who presented with insidious onset, progressive sensorimotor polyneuropathy, pedal edema, ascites, hepatomegaly, skin changes and hypothyroidism. X-ray of the pelvis showed osteosclerotic lesions. Immunoelectrophoresis using the immunofixation method revealed lambda chain monoclonal gammopathy. The patient was given radiotherapy, followed by a combination therapy of melphalan and dexamethasone. We emphasize the importance of recognizing a challenging diagnosis of a rare disease, which is shown to be treatment responsive.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus