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Rhythm and Attention: Does the Beat Position of a Visual or Auditory Regular Pulse Modulate T2 Detection in the Attentional Blink?

Bermeitinger C, Frings C - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: We found large AB effects.However, the rhythm did not modulate the AB.Our experiments suggest that oscillatory cycling attention does not affect temporal selection as tapped in the AB paradigm.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Experimental Psychology, Institute of Psychology, University of Hildesheim Hildesheim, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The attentional blink (AB) is one impressive demonstration of limited attentional capacities in time: a second target (T2) is often missed when it should be detected within 200-600 ms after a first target. According to the dynamic attending theory, attention cycles oscillatory. Regular rhythms (i.e., pulses) should evoke expectations regarding the point of the next occurrence of a tone/element in the rhythm. At this point, more attentional resources should be provided. Thus, if rhythmic information can be used to optimize attentional release, we assume a modulation of the AB when an additional rhythm is given. We tested this idea in two experiments with a visual (Experiment 1) or an auditory (Experiment 2) rhythm. We found large AB effects. However, the rhythm did not modulate the AB. If the rhythm had an influence at all, then Experiment 2 showed that an auditory rhythm (or stimulus) falling on T2 might generally boost visual processing, irrespective of attentional resources as indexed by the AB paradigm. Our experiments suggest that oscillatory cycling attention does not affect temporal selection as tapped in the AB paradigm.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

General idea and procedure (with an auditory rhythm, i.e., Experiment 2). Please note that the time information is given with rounded values. With a refresh rate of 75 Hz, the exact timing is 26.66…, 106.66…, 133.33…506.66…, 533.33…(A,B) show the auditory rhythm presentation (the white squares indicate that there is no acoustic event at this time), the visual presentation (especially the RSVP with letters) with T2 at lag 3, as well as the attending/attentional rhythm. According to Barnes and Jones (2000), “an expected point in time corresponds to the peak of the attentional pulse carried by the oscillator” (p. 262). It is assumed that the oscillator adapts to stimulus time structure. (A) The auditory critical cue stimulus appears together with T2 which should result in a reduction of the AB (i.e., better T2 detection rates at lag 3; cf. C). (B) The auditory critical cue stimulus appears one position before T2. (C) Shown is our hypothesis for the AB effect depending on the rhythm and critical cue stimulus (which is either at T2 or at another position). The picture shows a reduction of the AB for T2s appearing together with the auditory critical cue stimulus (A better than B). We did not explicitly predict a general modulation of T2 detection by a rhythm—there might by a general enhancement or reduction of T2 detection also at lags 1 and 5. The main prediction, however, refers to the AB effect.
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Figure 1: General idea and procedure (with an auditory rhythm, i.e., Experiment 2). Please note that the time information is given with rounded values. With a refresh rate of 75 Hz, the exact timing is 26.66…, 106.66…, 133.33…506.66…, 533.33…(A,B) show the auditory rhythm presentation (the white squares indicate that there is no acoustic event at this time), the visual presentation (especially the RSVP with letters) with T2 at lag 3, as well as the attending/attentional rhythm. According to Barnes and Jones (2000), “an expected point in time corresponds to the peak of the attentional pulse carried by the oscillator” (p. 262). It is assumed that the oscillator adapts to stimulus time structure. (A) The auditory critical cue stimulus appears together with T2 which should result in a reduction of the AB (i.e., better T2 detection rates at lag 3; cf. C). (B) The auditory critical cue stimulus appears one position before T2. (C) Shown is our hypothesis for the AB effect depending on the rhythm and critical cue stimulus (which is either at T2 or at another position). The picture shows a reduction of the AB for T2s appearing together with the auditory critical cue stimulus (A better than B). We did not explicitly predict a general modulation of T2 detection by a rhythm—there might by a general enhancement or reduction of T2 detection also at lags 1 and 5. The main prediction, however, refers to the AB effect.

Mentions: However, until now, there is now study in which the dependence of the AB effect on an additional rhythm like that used by Barnes and Jones (2000; see above) is studied. If other information, especially rhythmic information, can be used to optimize attentional release, we assume there should be a modulation of the AB when an additional rhythm is given. Specifically, we assume that the AB could be diminished by introducing a rhythm which peaks at the point in time when T2 is presented. In this case, the rhythm should evoke expectations regarding the point of T2 and more attentional resources should be provided at this point. All current theories concerning AB lead to the prediction that a peak of additional attentional resources corresponding to the onset of T2 should diminish the AB. That is, when a tone is expected at position T2, this should lead to a simultaneous release of attentional resources which in turn would lead to a diminished AB effect—given that a rhythm is able to release additional attentional resources. The general aim of the present experiments is to examine whether the assumed cyclical oscillating nature of attention in the presence of a rhythm can be manipulated to release attentional resources at peak times in the RSVP cycle, as would be shown by a reduction of the AB effect (for the general idea and procedure see also Figure 1).


Rhythm and Attention: Does the Beat Position of a Visual or Auditory Regular Pulse Modulate T2 Detection in the Attentional Blink?

Bermeitinger C, Frings C - Front Psychol (2015)

General idea and procedure (with an auditory rhythm, i.e., Experiment 2). Please note that the time information is given with rounded values. With a refresh rate of 75 Hz, the exact timing is 26.66…, 106.66…, 133.33…506.66…, 533.33…(A,B) show the auditory rhythm presentation (the white squares indicate that there is no acoustic event at this time), the visual presentation (especially the RSVP with letters) with T2 at lag 3, as well as the attending/attentional rhythm. According to Barnes and Jones (2000), “an expected point in time corresponds to the peak of the attentional pulse carried by the oscillator” (p. 262). It is assumed that the oscillator adapts to stimulus time structure. (A) The auditory critical cue stimulus appears together with T2 which should result in a reduction of the AB (i.e., better T2 detection rates at lag 3; cf. C). (B) The auditory critical cue stimulus appears one position before T2. (C) Shown is our hypothesis for the AB effect depending on the rhythm and critical cue stimulus (which is either at T2 or at another position). The picture shows a reduction of the AB for T2s appearing together with the auditory critical cue stimulus (A better than B). We did not explicitly predict a general modulation of T2 detection by a rhythm—there might by a general enhancement or reduction of T2 detection also at lags 1 and 5. The main prediction, however, refers to the AB effect.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664834&req=5

Figure 1: General idea and procedure (with an auditory rhythm, i.e., Experiment 2). Please note that the time information is given with rounded values. With a refresh rate of 75 Hz, the exact timing is 26.66…, 106.66…, 133.33…506.66…, 533.33…(A,B) show the auditory rhythm presentation (the white squares indicate that there is no acoustic event at this time), the visual presentation (especially the RSVP with letters) with T2 at lag 3, as well as the attending/attentional rhythm. According to Barnes and Jones (2000), “an expected point in time corresponds to the peak of the attentional pulse carried by the oscillator” (p. 262). It is assumed that the oscillator adapts to stimulus time structure. (A) The auditory critical cue stimulus appears together with T2 which should result in a reduction of the AB (i.e., better T2 detection rates at lag 3; cf. C). (B) The auditory critical cue stimulus appears one position before T2. (C) Shown is our hypothesis for the AB effect depending on the rhythm and critical cue stimulus (which is either at T2 or at another position). The picture shows a reduction of the AB for T2s appearing together with the auditory critical cue stimulus (A better than B). We did not explicitly predict a general modulation of T2 detection by a rhythm—there might by a general enhancement or reduction of T2 detection also at lags 1 and 5. The main prediction, however, refers to the AB effect.
Mentions: However, until now, there is now study in which the dependence of the AB effect on an additional rhythm like that used by Barnes and Jones (2000; see above) is studied. If other information, especially rhythmic information, can be used to optimize attentional release, we assume there should be a modulation of the AB when an additional rhythm is given. Specifically, we assume that the AB could be diminished by introducing a rhythm which peaks at the point in time when T2 is presented. In this case, the rhythm should evoke expectations regarding the point of T2 and more attentional resources should be provided at this point. All current theories concerning AB lead to the prediction that a peak of additional attentional resources corresponding to the onset of T2 should diminish the AB. That is, when a tone is expected at position T2, this should lead to a simultaneous release of attentional resources which in turn would lead to a diminished AB effect—given that a rhythm is able to release additional attentional resources. The general aim of the present experiments is to examine whether the assumed cyclical oscillating nature of attention in the presence of a rhythm can be manipulated to release attentional resources at peak times in the RSVP cycle, as would be shown by a reduction of the AB effect (for the general idea and procedure see also Figure 1).

Bottom Line: We found large AB effects.However, the rhythm did not modulate the AB.Our experiments suggest that oscillatory cycling attention does not affect temporal selection as tapped in the AB paradigm.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Experimental Psychology, Institute of Psychology, University of Hildesheim Hildesheim, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The attentional blink (AB) is one impressive demonstration of limited attentional capacities in time: a second target (T2) is often missed when it should be detected within 200-600 ms after a first target. According to the dynamic attending theory, attention cycles oscillatory. Regular rhythms (i.e., pulses) should evoke expectations regarding the point of the next occurrence of a tone/element in the rhythm. At this point, more attentional resources should be provided. Thus, if rhythmic information can be used to optimize attentional release, we assume a modulation of the AB when an additional rhythm is given. We tested this idea in two experiments with a visual (Experiment 1) or an auditory (Experiment 2) rhythm. We found large AB effects. However, the rhythm did not modulate the AB. If the rhythm had an influence at all, then Experiment 2 showed that an auditory rhythm (or stimulus) falling on T2 might generally boost visual processing, irrespective of attentional resources as indexed by the AB paradigm. Our experiments suggest that oscillatory cycling attention does not affect temporal selection as tapped in the AB paradigm.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus