Limits...
Serological Survey for Avian Influenza in Turkeys in Three States of Southwest Nigeria.

Oluwayelu DO, Aiki-Raji CO, Adigun OT, Olofintuyi OK, Adebiyi AI - Influenza Res Treat (2015)

Bottom Line: Of the 23 ELISA-positive samples, 18 were positive for anti-AIV H3N8 antibodies only and four were positive for both anti-AIV H3N8 and H5N2 antibodies indicating a mixed infection, while five were negative for antibodies to either of the two AIV subtypes.We advocate further studies to determine the potential role of turkeys in the zoonotic transmission of AIVs in Nigeria.Additionally, the practice of rearing turkeys with chickens should be discouraged.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan 20005, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT
Since the first outbreak of avian influenza (AI) in Nigeria in 2006, there has been continuous monitoring of the disease in chickens with little attention given to turkeys. As part of on-going surveillance for AI in southwest Nigeria, we used a competitive ELISA to detect anti-AI virus antibodies in 520 turkey sera obtained from poultry farms in Oyo, Osun, and Ondo states while haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies against low pathogenic AI viruses (LPAIVs) were detected using H3N8 and H5N2 subtype-specific antigens. The overall seroprevalence obtained by ELISA was 4.4% (23/520). Of the 23 ELISA-positive samples, 18 were positive for anti-AIV H3N8 antibodies only and four were positive for both anti-AIV H3N8 and H5N2 antibodies indicating a mixed infection, while five were negative for antibodies to either of the two AIV subtypes. Considering that turkeys have been implicated as a mixing vessel for generating influenza virus reassortants of human and avian origin, the detection of antibodies to LPAIV H3N8 and H5N2 in these turkeys is of public health concern. We advocate further studies to determine the potential role of turkeys in the zoonotic transmission of AIVs in Nigeria. Additionally, the practice of rearing turkeys with chickens should be discouraged.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Practice of rearing turkeys with chickens.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664809&req=5

fig2: Practice of rearing turkeys with chickens.

Mentions: Interviews conducted with the farmers revealed that the sampled turkeys were not vaccinated against AI and rearing of turkeys with chickens was a common practice on some of the farms (Figure 2). It was also observed in two farms (one each in Oyo and Osun states) that the turkeys were kept in close proximity to pig pens while the farmers interviewed in Ondo state indicated their preference for rearing chickens instead of turkeys. Based on the ELISA, prevalence of anti-AIV antibodies in the tested turkey sera was 6.0% (19/315), 4.2% (4/95), and 0% (0/110) for Oyo, Osun, and Ondo states, respectively, with overall seroprevalence of 4.4% (23/520). Compared to the intensively raised turkeys, those reared on free-range system had significantly higher AIV antibody prevalence (Table 1), with p value of 0.034 and odds ratio (OR) of 9.4 (95% CI: 1.7–51). However, there was no significant difference in seropositivity based on state, breed, age, and sex of the birds although a greater proportion of the HI test-positive birds were intensively reared adult, female local turkeys from Oyo state (Table 2). The HI antibody titres ranged from 1 : 8 to 1 : 2048 and 1 : 64 to 1 : 2048 for LPAIV H3N8 and H5N2 subtypes, respectively. Of the tested sera, 18 were positive for anti-AIV H3N8 antibodies only and four were positive for both anti-AIV H3N8 and H5N2 antibodies, while five did not contain antibodies to either of the two AIV subtypes. Mean HI antibody titres of 5.4 ± 0.6 log2 (95% CI: 4.1–6.8) and 9.8 ± 1.3 log2 (95% CI: 5.8–13.7) were obtained for the H3N8- and H5N2-positive sera, respectively.


Serological Survey for Avian Influenza in Turkeys in Three States of Southwest Nigeria.

Oluwayelu DO, Aiki-Raji CO, Adigun OT, Olofintuyi OK, Adebiyi AI - Influenza Res Treat (2015)

Practice of rearing turkeys with chickens.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664809&req=5

fig2: Practice of rearing turkeys with chickens.
Mentions: Interviews conducted with the farmers revealed that the sampled turkeys were not vaccinated against AI and rearing of turkeys with chickens was a common practice on some of the farms (Figure 2). It was also observed in two farms (one each in Oyo and Osun states) that the turkeys were kept in close proximity to pig pens while the farmers interviewed in Ondo state indicated their preference for rearing chickens instead of turkeys. Based on the ELISA, prevalence of anti-AIV antibodies in the tested turkey sera was 6.0% (19/315), 4.2% (4/95), and 0% (0/110) for Oyo, Osun, and Ondo states, respectively, with overall seroprevalence of 4.4% (23/520). Compared to the intensively raised turkeys, those reared on free-range system had significantly higher AIV antibody prevalence (Table 1), with p value of 0.034 and odds ratio (OR) of 9.4 (95% CI: 1.7–51). However, there was no significant difference in seropositivity based on state, breed, age, and sex of the birds although a greater proportion of the HI test-positive birds were intensively reared adult, female local turkeys from Oyo state (Table 2). The HI antibody titres ranged from 1 : 8 to 1 : 2048 and 1 : 64 to 1 : 2048 for LPAIV H3N8 and H5N2 subtypes, respectively. Of the tested sera, 18 were positive for anti-AIV H3N8 antibodies only and four were positive for both anti-AIV H3N8 and H5N2 antibodies, while five did not contain antibodies to either of the two AIV subtypes. Mean HI antibody titres of 5.4 ± 0.6 log2 (95% CI: 4.1–6.8) and 9.8 ± 1.3 log2 (95% CI: 5.8–13.7) were obtained for the H3N8- and H5N2-positive sera, respectively.

Bottom Line: Of the 23 ELISA-positive samples, 18 were positive for anti-AIV H3N8 antibodies only and four were positive for both anti-AIV H3N8 and H5N2 antibodies indicating a mixed infection, while five were negative for antibodies to either of the two AIV subtypes.We advocate further studies to determine the potential role of turkeys in the zoonotic transmission of AIVs in Nigeria.Additionally, the practice of rearing turkeys with chickens should be discouraged.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan 20005, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT
Since the first outbreak of avian influenza (AI) in Nigeria in 2006, there has been continuous monitoring of the disease in chickens with little attention given to turkeys. As part of on-going surveillance for AI in southwest Nigeria, we used a competitive ELISA to detect anti-AI virus antibodies in 520 turkey sera obtained from poultry farms in Oyo, Osun, and Ondo states while haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies against low pathogenic AI viruses (LPAIVs) were detected using H3N8 and H5N2 subtype-specific antigens. The overall seroprevalence obtained by ELISA was 4.4% (23/520). Of the 23 ELISA-positive samples, 18 were positive for anti-AIV H3N8 antibodies only and four were positive for both anti-AIV H3N8 and H5N2 antibodies indicating a mixed infection, while five were negative for antibodies to either of the two AIV subtypes. Considering that turkeys have been implicated as a mixing vessel for generating influenza virus reassortants of human and avian origin, the detection of antibodies to LPAIV H3N8 and H5N2 in these turkeys is of public health concern. We advocate further studies to determine the potential role of turkeys in the zoonotic transmission of AIVs in Nigeria. Additionally, the practice of rearing turkeys with chickens should be discouraged.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus