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The Role of Environmental Factors on Sleep Patterns and School Performance in Adolescents.

Dimitriou D, Le Cornu Knight F, Milton P - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: Crucially, mediation analyses confirmed that both caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bedtime were negatively associated with academic performance, via the mediating pathway by affecting sleep.The current findings highlight that, now more than ever, parents, schools and policy makers must be aware of the negative effects of caffeinated substances marketed to students, and electronic media use on their sleep habits.Our findings suggest that targeting caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bed may represent effective routes in alleviating modern teenage sleep debt, and in turn enhancing academic performance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Lifespan Learning and Sleep Laboratory, Department of Psychology and Human Development, UCL Institute of Education London, UK.

ABSTRACT

Background: Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behavior.

Aims: This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship.

Sample and method: Forty-seven adolescents took part. Sleep was measured using the School Sleep Habits Survey (SSHS) and a sleep diary. School records of year grade point averages provided a measure of academic achievement. Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices gave a measure of general cognitive processing. Environmental sleep factors falling into three groups, namely, stimulant consumption, media use and exercise, were measured using a self-report questionnaire.

Results: An average of 7.08 h of sleep was reported. Correlations revealed that Total sleep time (TST) and bedtimes on weekdays were strongly associated with academic achievement. Morning/eveningness and sleep/wake behavior problems had a strong relationship with performance on the Ravens. Stimulant consumption and media use before bed revealed strong relationships with TST and bedtimes on weekdays. Crucially, mediation analyses confirmed that both caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bedtime were negatively associated with academic performance, via the mediating pathway by affecting sleep. Exercise was not associated with any of the sleep variables, but was associated with better academic performance.

Conclusion: The current findings highlight that, now more than ever, parents, schools and policy makers must be aware of the negative effects of caffeinated substances marketed to students, and electronic media use on their sleep habits. Our findings suggest that targeting caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bed may represent effective routes in alleviating modern teenage sleep debt, and in turn enhancing academic performance.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Regression coefficients, and significance levels, for the relationship between technology use before bed and year GPA as mediated by total sleep time on weekdays.
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Figure 2: Regression coefficients, and significance levels, for the relationship between technology use before bed and year GPA as mediated by total sleep time on weekdays.

Mentions: The first examined the relationship between Exercise and Year GPA, with TST on Weekdays as a mediator, and controlling for non-verbal IQ using the Ravens SPM. An R2-value showed that the overall model explained 61.71% of the variation in Year GPA (R2 = 0.62, p = 0.001), however scrutinizing the regression model further this was the result of a strong relationship between TST weekdays and non-verbal IQ on academic performance. Exercise did not return a significant direct effect on year GPA in this mediated regression model. The second mediated regression examined the relationship between Combined Caffeine Consumption and Year GPA via the mediated pathway of TST on Weekdays, again controlling for non-verbal IQ (See Figure 1). There was a significant indirect effect of caffeine consumption on year GPA via TST on weekdays, b = −0.83, BCa CI [−1.86, −0.27], p = 0.02. Using a completely standardized effect size (Preacher and Kelley, 2011) this represents a large effect size, abcs = −0.19, 95% BCa CI [−0.40, −0.07]. Finally, the third mediated regression was conducted, this time examining the use of EMBB and Year GPA, with TST on weekdays as the mediator, and controlling for non-verbal IQ. There was a significant indirect effect of EMBB on GPA via sleep, b = −0.88, BCa CI [−1.80, −.24], p = 0.01, suggesting that electronic media use before bed reduces academic performance by decreasing sleep on weeknights (Figure 2). Again, this represented a large effect size abcs = −0.23, 95% BCa CI [−0.47, −0.07]. Although our sample size is rather small the narrow age range and magnitude of the effect sizes of α and β pathways are relatively good.


The Role of Environmental Factors on Sleep Patterns and School Performance in Adolescents.

Dimitriou D, Le Cornu Knight F, Milton P - Front Psychol (2015)

Regression coefficients, and significance levels, for the relationship between technology use before bed and year GPA as mediated by total sleep time on weekdays.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664801&req=5

Figure 2: Regression coefficients, and significance levels, for the relationship between technology use before bed and year GPA as mediated by total sleep time on weekdays.
Mentions: The first examined the relationship between Exercise and Year GPA, with TST on Weekdays as a mediator, and controlling for non-verbal IQ using the Ravens SPM. An R2-value showed that the overall model explained 61.71% of the variation in Year GPA (R2 = 0.62, p = 0.001), however scrutinizing the regression model further this was the result of a strong relationship between TST weekdays and non-verbal IQ on academic performance. Exercise did not return a significant direct effect on year GPA in this mediated regression model. The second mediated regression examined the relationship between Combined Caffeine Consumption and Year GPA via the mediated pathway of TST on Weekdays, again controlling for non-verbal IQ (See Figure 1). There was a significant indirect effect of caffeine consumption on year GPA via TST on weekdays, b = −0.83, BCa CI [−1.86, −0.27], p = 0.02. Using a completely standardized effect size (Preacher and Kelley, 2011) this represents a large effect size, abcs = −0.19, 95% BCa CI [−0.40, −0.07]. Finally, the third mediated regression was conducted, this time examining the use of EMBB and Year GPA, with TST on weekdays as the mediator, and controlling for non-verbal IQ. There was a significant indirect effect of EMBB on GPA via sleep, b = −0.88, BCa CI [−1.80, −.24], p = 0.01, suggesting that electronic media use before bed reduces academic performance by decreasing sleep on weeknights (Figure 2). Again, this represented a large effect size abcs = −0.23, 95% BCa CI [−0.47, −0.07]. Although our sample size is rather small the narrow age range and magnitude of the effect sizes of α and β pathways are relatively good.

Bottom Line: Crucially, mediation analyses confirmed that both caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bedtime were negatively associated with academic performance, via the mediating pathway by affecting sleep.The current findings highlight that, now more than ever, parents, schools and policy makers must be aware of the negative effects of caffeinated substances marketed to students, and electronic media use on their sleep habits.Our findings suggest that targeting caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bed may represent effective routes in alleviating modern teenage sleep debt, and in turn enhancing academic performance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Lifespan Learning and Sleep Laboratory, Department of Psychology and Human Development, UCL Institute of Education London, UK.

ABSTRACT

Background: Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behavior.

Aims: This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship.

Sample and method: Forty-seven adolescents took part. Sleep was measured using the School Sleep Habits Survey (SSHS) and a sleep diary. School records of year grade point averages provided a measure of academic achievement. Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices gave a measure of general cognitive processing. Environmental sleep factors falling into three groups, namely, stimulant consumption, media use and exercise, were measured using a self-report questionnaire.

Results: An average of 7.08 h of sleep was reported. Correlations revealed that Total sleep time (TST) and bedtimes on weekdays were strongly associated with academic achievement. Morning/eveningness and sleep/wake behavior problems had a strong relationship with performance on the Ravens. Stimulant consumption and media use before bed revealed strong relationships with TST and bedtimes on weekdays. Crucially, mediation analyses confirmed that both caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bedtime were negatively associated with academic performance, via the mediating pathway by affecting sleep. Exercise was not associated with any of the sleep variables, but was associated with better academic performance.

Conclusion: The current findings highlight that, now more than ever, parents, schools and policy makers must be aware of the negative effects of caffeinated substances marketed to students, and electronic media use on their sleep habits. Our findings suggest that targeting caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bed may represent effective routes in alleviating modern teenage sleep debt, and in turn enhancing academic performance.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus