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Links Between Ethylene and Sulfur Nutrition-A Regulatory Interplay or Just Metabolite Association?

Wawrzynska A, Moniuszko G, Sirko A - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: An elevated level of ethylene might result from increased activity of enzymes involved in its synthesis.On the other hand, the ethylene-insensitive Nicotiana attenuata plants are impaired in sulfur uptake, reduction and metabolism, and they invest their already limited S into methionine needed for synthesis of ethylene constitutively emitted in large amounts to the atmosphere.Regulatory links of EIN3 and SLIM1 (both from the same family of transcriptional factors) involved in the regulation of ethylene and sulfur pathway, respectively, is also quite probable as well as the reciprocal modulation of both pathways on the enzyme activity levels.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics Polish Academy of Sciences Warsaw, Poland.

ABSTRACT
Multiple reports demonstrate associations between ethylene and sulfur metabolisms, however the details of these links have not yet been fully characterized; the links might be at the metabolic and the regulatory levels. First, sulfur-containing metabolite, methionine, is a precursor of ethylene and is a rate limiting metabolite for ethylene synthesis; the methionine cycle contributes to both sulfur and ethylene metabolism. On the other hand, ethylene is involved in the complex response networks to various stresses and it is known that S deficiency leads to photosynthesis and C metabolism disturbances that might be responsible for oxidative stress. In several plant species, ethylene increases during sulfur starvation and might serve signaling purposes to initiate the process of metabolism reprogramming during adjustment to sulfur deficit. An elevated level of ethylene might result from increased activity of enzymes involved in its synthesis. It has been demonstrated that the alleviation of cadmium stress in plants by application of S seems to be mediated by ethylene formation. On the other hand, the ethylene-insensitive Nicotiana attenuata plants are impaired in sulfur uptake, reduction and metabolism, and they invest their already limited S into methionine needed for synthesis of ethylene constitutively emitted in large amounts to the atmosphere. Regulatory links of EIN3 and SLIM1 (both from the same family of transcriptional factors) involved in the regulation of ethylene and sulfur pathway, respectively, is also quite probable as well as the reciprocal modulation of both pathways on the enzyme activity levels.

No MeSH data available.


A hypothetical model of regulatory links between S− and ethylene sensing and signaling. Only the selected metabolites, enzymes and other players are presented. The black arrow represents one-step or multiple-step signaling or metabolic pathway progress. Colored arrows (gray, red, blue, green, orange) represent regulatory mechanisms reported in the published studies. At the current stage, most of these mechanisms are obscurely documented and need further research. Additionally, the S status sensor is elusive.
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Figure 2: A hypothetical model of regulatory links between S− and ethylene sensing and signaling. Only the selected metabolites, enzymes and other players are presented. The black arrow represents one-step or multiple-step signaling or metabolic pathway progress. Colored arrows (gray, red, blue, green, orange) represent regulatory mechanisms reported in the published studies. At the current stage, most of these mechanisms are obscurely documented and need further research. Additionally, the S status sensor is elusive.

Mentions: The hypothetical model explaining possible co-regulation of sulfur and ethylene signaling in plants is shown in Figure 2. According to the model, S availability modulates ethylene sensitivity due to a switch of ethylene receptor function. S deficiency might also affect ethylene production by stabilizing ACO level or activity. On the other hand, ethylene production is negatively affected by the sulfated phytohormone, PSK. The functional ethylene pathway is necessary for increased level of GSH in some stresses. Moreover, ethylene seems to stimulate the activity of several enzymes involved in S assimilation.


Links Between Ethylene and Sulfur Nutrition-A Regulatory Interplay or Just Metabolite Association?

Wawrzynska A, Moniuszko G, Sirko A - Front Plant Sci (2015)

A hypothetical model of regulatory links between S− and ethylene sensing and signaling. Only the selected metabolites, enzymes and other players are presented. The black arrow represents one-step or multiple-step signaling or metabolic pathway progress. Colored arrows (gray, red, blue, green, orange) represent regulatory mechanisms reported in the published studies. At the current stage, most of these mechanisms are obscurely documented and need further research. Additionally, the S status sensor is elusive.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664752&req=5

Figure 2: A hypothetical model of regulatory links between S− and ethylene sensing and signaling. Only the selected metabolites, enzymes and other players are presented. The black arrow represents one-step or multiple-step signaling or metabolic pathway progress. Colored arrows (gray, red, blue, green, orange) represent regulatory mechanisms reported in the published studies. At the current stage, most of these mechanisms are obscurely documented and need further research. Additionally, the S status sensor is elusive.
Mentions: The hypothetical model explaining possible co-regulation of sulfur and ethylene signaling in plants is shown in Figure 2. According to the model, S availability modulates ethylene sensitivity due to a switch of ethylene receptor function. S deficiency might also affect ethylene production by stabilizing ACO level or activity. On the other hand, ethylene production is negatively affected by the sulfated phytohormone, PSK. The functional ethylene pathway is necessary for increased level of GSH in some stresses. Moreover, ethylene seems to stimulate the activity of several enzymes involved in S assimilation.

Bottom Line: An elevated level of ethylene might result from increased activity of enzymes involved in its synthesis.On the other hand, the ethylene-insensitive Nicotiana attenuata plants are impaired in sulfur uptake, reduction and metabolism, and they invest their already limited S into methionine needed for synthesis of ethylene constitutively emitted in large amounts to the atmosphere.Regulatory links of EIN3 and SLIM1 (both from the same family of transcriptional factors) involved in the regulation of ethylene and sulfur pathway, respectively, is also quite probable as well as the reciprocal modulation of both pathways on the enzyme activity levels.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics Polish Academy of Sciences Warsaw, Poland.

ABSTRACT
Multiple reports demonstrate associations between ethylene and sulfur metabolisms, however the details of these links have not yet been fully characterized; the links might be at the metabolic and the regulatory levels. First, sulfur-containing metabolite, methionine, is a precursor of ethylene and is a rate limiting metabolite for ethylene synthesis; the methionine cycle contributes to both sulfur and ethylene metabolism. On the other hand, ethylene is involved in the complex response networks to various stresses and it is known that S deficiency leads to photosynthesis and C metabolism disturbances that might be responsible for oxidative stress. In several plant species, ethylene increases during sulfur starvation and might serve signaling purposes to initiate the process of metabolism reprogramming during adjustment to sulfur deficit. An elevated level of ethylene might result from increased activity of enzymes involved in its synthesis. It has been demonstrated that the alleviation of cadmium stress in plants by application of S seems to be mediated by ethylene formation. On the other hand, the ethylene-insensitive Nicotiana attenuata plants are impaired in sulfur uptake, reduction and metabolism, and they invest their already limited S into methionine needed for synthesis of ethylene constitutively emitted in large amounts to the atmosphere. Regulatory links of EIN3 and SLIM1 (both from the same family of transcriptional factors) involved in the regulation of ethylene and sulfur pathway, respectively, is also quite probable as well as the reciprocal modulation of both pathways on the enzyme activity levels.

No MeSH data available.