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Links Between Ethylene and Sulfur Nutrition-A Regulatory Interplay or Just Metabolite Association?

Wawrzynska A, Moniuszko G, Sirko A - Front Plant Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: An elevated level of ethylene might result from increased activity of enzymes involved in its synthesis.On the other hand, the ethylene-insensitive Nicotiana attenuata plants are impaired in sulfur uptake, reduction and metabolism, and they invest their already limited S into methionine needed for synthesis of ethylene constitutively emitted in large amounts to the atmosphere.Regulatory links of EIN3 and SLIM1 (both from the same family of transcriptional factors) involved in the regulation of ethylene and sulfur pathway, respectively, is also quite probable as well as the reciprocal modulation of both pathways on the enzyme activity levels.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics Polish Academy of Sciences Warsaw, Poland.

ABSTRACT
Multiple reports demonstrate associations between ethylene and sulfur metabolisms, however the details of these links have not yet been fully characterized; the links might be at the metabolic and the regulatory levels. First, sulfur-containing metabolite, methionine, is a precursor of ethylene and is a rate limiting metabolite for ethylene synthesis; the methionine cycle contributes to both sulfur and ethylene metabolism. On the other hand, ethylene is involved in the complex response networks to various stresses and it is known that S deficiency leads to photosynthesis and C metabolism disturbances that might be responsible for oxidative stress. In several plant species, ethylene increases during sulfur starvation and might serve signaling purposes to initiate the process of metabolism reprogramming during adjustment to sulfur deficit. An elevated level of ethylene might result from increased activity of enzymes involved in its synthesis. It has been demonstrated that the alleviation of cadmium stress in plants by application of S seems to be mediated by ethylene formation. On the other hand, the ethylene-insensitive Nicotiana attenuata plants are impaired in sulfur uptake, reduction and metabolism, and they invest their already limited S into methionine needed for synthesis of ethylene constitutively emitted in large amounts to the atmosphere. Regulatory links of EIN3 and SLIM1 (both from the same family of transcriptional factors) involved in the regulation of ethylene and sulfur pathway, respectively, is also quite probable as well as the reciprocal modulation of both pathways on the enzyme activity levels.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

An overview of the sulfur assimilation pathway and major sulfur metabolites. Only the selected metabolites (black fonts) and selected enzymes (blue fonts) of the pathway are presented. ACC, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate; ACO, ACC oxidase; ACS, ACC synthase; APK, APS kinase; APR, APS reductase; APS, adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate; ATPS, ATP sulfurylase; dcSAM, decarboxylated SAM; GSH, reduced glutathione; KMB, α-keto-γ-methylthiobutyric acid; MTA, S-methyl-5′-thioadenosine; MTR, S-methyl-5-thio-D-ribose; NAS, nicotianamine synthase; PAP, 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphate; PAPS, 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate; PSK, phytosulfokine; SAM, S-adenosylmethionine; SAMDC, SAM decarboxylase; SAMS, SAM synthase; SiR, sulfite reductase; SULTR, sulfate transporter; TPST, tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase.
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Figure 1: An overview of the sulfur assimilation pathway and major sulfur metabolites. Only the selected metabolites (black fonts) and selected enzymes (blue fonts) of the pathway are presented. ACC, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate; ACO, ACC oxidase; ACS, ACC synthase; APK, APS kinase; APR, APS reductase; APS, adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate; ATPS, ATP sulfurylase; dcSAM, decarboxylated SAM; GSH, reduced glutathione; KMB, α-keto-γ-methylthiobutyric acid; MTA, S-methyl-5′-thioadenosine; MTR, S-methyl-5-thio-D-ribose; NAS, nicotianamine synthase; PAP, 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphate; PAPS, 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate; PSK, phytosulfokine; SAM, S-adenosylmethionine; SAMDC, SAM decarboxylase; SAMS, SAM synthase; SiR, sulfite reductase; SULTR, sulfate transporter; TPST, tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase.

Mentions: Sulfur (S) is an important macronutrient for all organisms. Plants can metabolize inorganic sulfur that is taken up from the soil in the oxidized form (sulfate) and then it is reduced and incorporated into a broad range of primary and secondary metabolites. Some of them serve as precursors of other important (but not S-containing) cellular compounds. A schematic overview of the S assimilation pathway, including most of the related metabolites, is shown in Figure 1. The crosstalk between sulfur assimilation and ethylene signaling in plants attracts more attention because of the growing number of data concerning the influence of S nutrition on ethylene signaling and production, as well as the impact of ethylene on the expression of S genes, activity of S enzymes and level of S metabolites (Iqbal et al., 2013). Here, we briefly summarize the most important facts and observations related to the links between ethylene and S nutrition and propose a working model of the complex signaling and regulatory interplay between these two factors.


Links Between Ethylene and Sulfur Nutrition-A Regulatory Interplay or Just Metabolite Association?

Wawrzynska A, Moniuszko G, Sirko A - Front Plant Sci (2015)

An overview of the sulfur assimilation pathway and major sulfur metabolites. Only the selected metabolites (black fonts) and selected enzymes (blue fonts) of the pathway are presented. ACC, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate; ACO, ACC oxidase; ACS, ACC synthase; APK, APS kinase; APR, APS reductase; APS, adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate; ATPS, ATP sulfurylase; dcSAM, decarboxylated SAM; GSH, reduced glutathione; KMB, α-keto-γ-methylthiobutyric acid; MTA, S-methyl-5′-thioadenosine; MTR, S-methyl-5-thio-D-ribose; NAS, nicotianamine synthase; PAP, 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphate; PAPS, 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate; PSK, phytosulfokine; SAM, S-adenosylmethionine; SAMDC, SAM decarboxylase; SAMS, SAM synthase; SiR, sulfite reductase; SULTR, sulfate transporter; TPST, tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664752&req=5

Figure 1: An overview of the sulfur assimilation pathway and major sulfur metabolites. Only the selected metabolites (black fonts) and selected enzymes (blue fonts) of the pathway are presented. ACC, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate; ACO, ACC oxidase; ACS, ACC synthase; APK, APS kinase; APR, APS reductase; APS, adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate; ATPS, ATP sulfurylase; dcSAM, decarboxylated SAM; GSH, reduced glutathione; KMB, α-keto-γ-methylthiobutyric acid; MTA, S-methyl-5′-thioadenosine; MTR, S-methyl-5-thio-D-ribose; NAS, nicotianamine synthase; PAP, 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphate; PAPS, 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate; PSK, phytosulfokine; SAM, S-adenosylmethionine; SAMDC, SAM decarboxylase; SAMS, SAM synthase; SiR, sulfite reductase; SULTR, sulfate transporter; TPST, tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase.
Mentions: Sulfur (S) is an important macronutrient for all organisms. Plants can metabolize inorganic sulfur that is taken up from the soil in the oxidized form (sulfate) and then it is reduced and incorporated into a broad range of primary and secondary metabolites. Some of them serve as precursors of other important (but not S-containing) cellular compounds. A schematic overview of the S assimilation pathway, including most of the related metabolites, is shown in Figure 1. The crosstalk between sulfur assimilation and ethylene signaling in plants attracts more attention because of the growing number of data concerning the influence of S nutrition on ethylene signaling and production, as well as the impact of ethylene on the expression of S genes, activity of S enzymes and level of S metabolites (Iqbal et al., 2013). Here, we briefly summarize the most important facts and observations related to the links between ethylene and S nutrition and propose a working model of the complex signaling and regulatory interplay between these two factors.

Bottom Line: An elevated level of ethylene might result from increased activity of enzymes involved in its synthesis.On the other hand, the ethylene-insensitive Nicotiana attenuata plants are impaired in sulfur uptake, reduction and metabolism, and they invest their already limited S into methionine needed for synthesis of ethylene constitutively emitted in large amounts to the atmosphere.Regulatory links of EIN3 and SLIM1 (both from the same family of transcriptional factors) involved in the regulation of ethylene and sulfur pathway, respectively, is also quite probable as well as the reciprocal modulation of both pathways on the enzyme activity levels.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics Polish Academy of Sciences Warsaw, Poland.

ABSTRACT
Multiple reports demonstrate associations between ethylene and sulfur metabolisms, however the details of these links have not yet been fully characterized; the links might be at the metabolic and the regulatory levels. First, sulfur-containing metabolite, methionine, is a precursor of ethylene and is a rate limiting metabolite for ethylene synthesis; the methionine cycle contributes to both sulfur and ethylene metabolism. On the other hand, ethylene is involved in the complex response networks to various stresses and it is known that S deficiency leads to photosynthesis and C metabolism disturbances that might be responsible for oxidative stress. In several plant species, ethylene increases during sulfur starvation and might serve signaling purposes to initiate the process of metabolism reprogramming during adjustment to sulfur deficit. An elevated level of ethylene might result from increased activity of enzymes involved in its synthesis. It has been demonstrated that the alleviation of cadmium stress in plants by application of S seems to be mediated by ethylene formation. On the other hand, the ethylene-insensitive Nicotiana attenuata plants are impaired in sulfur uptake, reduction and metabolism, and they invest their already limited S into methionine needed for synthesis of ethylene constitutively emitted in large amounts to the atmosphere. Regulatory links of EIN3 and SLIM1 (both from the same family of transcriptional factors) involved in the regulation of ethylene and sulfur pathway, respectively, is also quite probable as well as the reciprocal modulation of both pathways on the enzyme activity levels.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus