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Accuracy of Outcome Anticipation, But Not Gaze Behavior, Differs Against Left- and Right-Handed Penalties in Team-Handball Goalkeeping.

Loffing F, Sölter F, Hagemann N, Strauss B - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: As expected, goalkeepers were considerably more accurate than non-goalkeepers and prediction was better against right- than left-handed penalties.Findings suggest that inferior anticipation of left-handed compared to right-handed individuals' action intentions may not be associated with misalignment in gaze behavior.Rather, albeit looking similarly, accuracy differences could be due to observers' differential ability of picking up and interpreting the visual information provided by left- vs. right-handed movements.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology and Society, Institute of Sports and Sports Science, University of Kassel Kassel, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Low perceptual familiarity with relatively rarer left-handed as opposed to more common right-handed individuals may result in athletes' poorer ability to anticipate the former's action intentions. Part of such left-right asymmetry in visual anticipation could be due to an inefficient gaze strategy during confrontation with left-handed individuals. To exemplify, observers may not mirror their gaze when viewing left- vs. right-handed actions but preferentially fixate on an opponent's right body side, irrespective of an opponent's handedness, owing to the predominant exposure to right-handed actions. So far empirical verification of such assumption, however, is lacking. Here we report on an experiment where team-handball goalkeepers' and non-goalkeepers' gaze behavior was recorded while they predicted throw direction of left- and right-handed 7-m penalties shown as videos on a computer monitor. As expected, goalkeepers were considerably more accurate than non-goalkeepers and prediction was better against right- than left-handed penalties. However, there was no indication of differences in gaze measures (i.e., number of fixations, overall and final fixation duration, time-course of horizontal or vertical fixation deviation) as a function of skill group or the penalty-takers' handedness. Findings suggest that inferior anticipation of left-handed compared to right-handed individuals' action intentions may not be associated with misalignment in gaze behavior. Rather, albeit looking similarly, accuracy differences could be due to observers' differential ability of picking up and interpreting the visual information provided by left- vs. right-handed movements.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Illustration of mean fixation positions relative to a penalty-taker's body at two different time points (−120 and −40 ms) close to the end of a video in (A) goalkeepers and (B) non-goalkeepers. While right-handed penalty-takers are illustrated, please note that mean fixation positions are displayed for both right- (blue) and left-handed (red) shots. For illustrative purposes, fixation values for left-handed shots were superimposed on right-handed shots by multiplication of originally recorded values with “−1.” The lengths of horizontal and vertical bars correspond to 95% confidence intervals associated with mean horizontal and vertical fixation positions (as represented by an intersection of error bars), respectively.
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Figure 3: Illustration of mean fixation positions relative to a penalty-taker's body at two different time points (−120 and −40 ms) close to the end of a video in (A) goalkeepers and (B) non-goalkeepers. While right-handed penalty-takers are illustrated, please note that mean fixation positions are displayed for both right- (blue) and left-handed (red) shots. For illustrative purposes, fixation values for left-handed shots were superimposed on right-handed shots by multiplication of originally recorded values with “−1.” The lengths of horizontal and vertical bars correspond to 95% confidence intervals associated with mean horizontal and vertical fixation positions (as represented by an intersection of error bars), respectively.

Mentions: In non-goalkeepers, there was a trend for slight differences (up to about 10 px) toward the end of videos from around 1800 ms onwards (see the course of means and associated 95% confidence intervals in Figure 2D). To further explore this issue, in Figures 3A,B goalkeepers' and non-goalkeepers' mean fixation positions against left- (red) and right-handed (blue) penalties are exemplarily displayed for the antepenultimate (−120 ms) and the finale frame (−40 ms) of videos. For illustrative purposes and to facilitate comparison of fixation locations, fixation values for left-handed shots were superimposed on right-handed shots by multiplication of originally recorded values with “−1.” In non-goalkeepers, there could be some slight handedness-dependent differences in horizontal gaze orientation, with mean fixation location being further away from a left- than right-handed penalty-takers' body (see Figure 3B). However, it is important to consider that 10 px corresponded to ~0.30°, that the eye-tracking system's average accuracy is 0.25–0.5° according to the manufacturer's instructions and that mean absolute average errors measured during the eye-tracker's validation in our experiment were 0.48° for both eyes. Thus, the small differences illustrated in Figures 2D, 3A,B were within the margin of error of gaze measurements. Therefore, we will refrain from elaborating on this issue in the following discussion.


Accuracy of Outcome Anticipation, But Not Gaze Behavior, Differs Against Left- and Right-Handed Penalties in Team-Handball Goalkeeping.

Loffing F, Sölter F, Hagemann N, Strauss B - Front Psychol (2015)

Illustration of mean fixation positions relative to a penalty-taker's body at two different time points (−120 and −40 ms) close to the end of a video in (A) goalkeepers and (B) non-goalkeepers. While right-handed penalty-takers are illustrated, please note that mean fixation positions are displayed for both right- (blue) and left-handed (red) shots. For illustrative purposes, fixation values for left-handed shots were superimposed on right-handed shots by multiplication of originally recorded values with “−1.” The lengths of horizontal and vertical bars correspond to 95% confidence intervals associated with mean horizontal and vertical fixation positions (as represented by an intersection of error bars), respectively.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664728&req=5

Figure 3: Illustration of mean fixation positions relative to a penalty-taker's body at two different time points (−120 and −40 ms) close to the end of a video in (A) goalkeepers and (B) non-goalkeepers. While right-handed penalty-takers are illustrated, please note that mean fixation positions are displayed for both right- (blue) and left-handed (red) shots. For illustrative purposes, fixation values for left-handed shots were superimposed on right-handed shots by multiplication of originally recorded values with “−1.” The lengths of horizontal and vertical bars correspond to 95% confidence intervals associated with mean horizontal and vertical fixation positions (as represented by an intersection of error bars), respectively.
Mentions: In non-goalkeepers, there was a trend for slight differences (up to about 10 px) toward the end of videos from around 1800 ms onwards (see the course of means and associated 95% confidence intervals in Figure 2D). To further explore this issue, in Figures 3A,B goalkeepers' and non-goalkeepers' mean fixation positions against left- (red) and right-handed (blue) penalties are exemplarily displayed for the antepenultimate (−120 ms) and the finale frame (−40 ms) of videos. For illustrative purposes and to facilitate comparison of fixation locations, fixation values for left-handed shots were superimposed on right-handed shots by multiplication of originally recorded values with “−1.” In non-goalkeepers, there could be some slight handedness-dependent differences in horizontal gaze orientation, with mean fixation location being further away from a left- than right-handed penalty-takers' body (see Figure 3B). However, it is important to consider that 10 px corresponded to ~0.30°, that the eye-tracking system's average accuracy is 0.25–0.5° according to the manufacturer's instructions and that mean absolute average errors measured during the eye-tracker's validation in our experiment were 0.48° for both eyes. Thus, the small differences illustrated in Figures 2D, 3A,B were within the margin of error of gaze measurements. Therefore, we will refrain from elaborating on this issue in the following discussion.

Bottom Line: As expected, goalkeepers were considerably more accurate than non-goalkeepers and prediction was better against right- than left-handed penalties.Findings suggest that inferior anticipation of left-handed compared to right-handed individuals' action intentions may not be associated with misalignment in gaze behavior.Rather, albeit looking similarly, accuracy differences could be due to observers' differential ability of picking up and interpreting the visual information provided by left- vs. right-handed movements.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology and Society, Institute of Sports and Sports Science, University of Kassel Kassel, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Low perceptual familiarity with relatively rarer left-handed as opposed to more common right-handed individuals may result in athletes' poorer ability to anticipate the former's action intentions. Part of such left-right asymmetry in visual anticipation could be due to an inefficient gaze strategy during confrontation with left-handed individuals. To exemplify, observers may not mirror their gaze when viewing left- vs. right-handed actions but preferentially fixate on an opponent's right body side, irrespective of an opponent's handedness, owing to the predominant exposure to right-handed actions. So far empirical verification of such assumption, however, is lacking. Here we report on an experiment where team-handball goalkeepers' and non-goalkeepers' gaze behavior was recorded while they predicted throw direction of left- and right-handed 7-m penalties shown as videos on a computer monitor. As expected, goalkeepers were considerably more accurate than non-goalkeepers and prediction was better against right- than left-handed penalties. However, there was no indication of differences in gaze measures (i.e., number of fixations, overall and final fixation duration, time-course of horizontal or vertical fixation deviation) as a function of skill group or the penalty-takers' handedness. Findings suggest that inferior anticipation of left-handed compared to right-handed individuals' action intentions may not be associated with misalignment in gaze behavior. Rather, albeit looking similarly, accuracy differences could be due to observers' differential ability of picking up and interpreting the visual information provided by left- vs. right-handed movements.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus