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Accuracy of Outcome Anticipation, But Not Gaze Behavior, Differs Against Left- and Right-Handed Penalties in Team-Handball Goalkeeping.

Loffing F, Sölter F, Hagemann N, Strauss B - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: As expected, goalkeepers were considerably more accurate than non-goalkeepers and prediction was better against right- than left-handed penalties.Findings suggest that inferior anticipation of left-handed compared to right-handed individuals' action intentions may not be associated with misalignment in gaze behavior.Rather, albeit looking similarly, accuracy differences could be due to observers' differential ability of picking up and interpreting the visual information provided by left- vs. right-handed movements.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology and Society, Institute of Sports and Sports Science, University of Kassel Kassel, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Low perceptual familiarity with relatively rarer left-handed as opposed to more common right-handed individuals may result in athletes' poorer ability to anticipate the former's action intentions. Part of such left-right asymmetry in visual anticipation could be due to an inefficient gaze strategy during confrontation with left-handed individuals. To exemplify, observers may not mirror their gaze when viewing left- vs. right-handed actions but preferentially fixate on an opponent's right body side, irrespective of an opponent's handedness, owing to the predominant exposure to right-handed actions. So far empirical verification of such assumption, however, is lacking. Here we report on an experiment where team-handball goalkeepers' and non-goalkeepers' gaze behavior was recorded while they predicted throw direction of left- and right-handed 7-m penalties shown as videos on a computer monitor. As expected, goalkeepers were considerably more accurate than non-goalkeepers and prediction was better against right- than left-handed penalties. However, there was no indication of differences in gaze measures (i.e., number of fixations, overall and final fixation duration, time-course of horizontal or vertical fixation deviation) as a function of skill group or the penalty-takers' handedness. Findings suggest that inferior anticipation of left-handed compared to right-handed individuals' action intentions may not be associated with misalignment in gaze behavior. Rather, albeit looking similarly, accuracy differences could be due to observers' differential ability of picking up and interpreting the visual information provided by left- vs. right-handed movements.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Screenshot of the final frame of a video in original and horizontally mirrored orientation. (B) Mean prediction accuracy against a right- (RH) vs. left-handed (LH) version of an otherwise identical penalty (i.e., 16 different videos) separately for corner, side and height predictions in goalkeepers (GK; ▴) and non-goalkeepers (Non-GK; ○). Symbols below the diagonal dotted blue line represent penalties where predictions were better against a right- than left-handed version (and vice versa). Red dotted lines indicate chance level for right- (vertical lines) and left-handed penalties (horizontal lines). Symbols toward the right (left) and/or above (below) these lines are indicative of above (below) chance performance against right- and left-handed penalties, respectively. (C) Mean prediction accuracy for corner, side and height predictions across all left- and right-handed penalties separately for goalkeepers (GK) and non-goalkeepers (Non-GK). Horizontal dashed red lines represent chance levels for corner (25%), side and height (both 50%) predictions. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals associated with each mean value such that error bars not including the red lines indicate above chance performance. Values above bars are Cohen's standardized effect sizes dz for differences in accuracy against left- vs. right-handed penalties within goalkeepers and non-goalkeepers. (D) Mean response time (±95% confidence intervals) against left- and right-handed penalties separately for goalkeepers and non-goalkeepers.
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Figure 1: (A) Screenshot of the final frame of a video in original and horizontally mirrored orientation. (B) Mean prediction accuracy against a right- (RH) vs. left-handed (LH) version of an otherwise identical penalty (i.e., 16 different videos) separately for corner, side and height predictions in goalkeepers (GK; ▴) and non-goalkeepers (Non-GK; ○). Symbols below the diagonal dotted blue line represent penalties where predictions were better against a right- than left-handed version (and vice versa). Red dotted lines indicate chance level for right- (vertical lines) and left-handed penalties (horizontal lines). Symbols toward the right (left) and/or above (below) these lines are indicative of above (below) chance performance against right- and left-handed penalties, respectively. (C) Mean prediction accuracy for corner, side and height predictions across all left- and right-handed penalties separately for goalkeepers (GK) and non-goalkeepers (Non-GK). Horizontal dashed red lines represent chance levels for corner (25%), side and height (both 50%) predictions. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals associated with each mean value such that error bars not including the red lines indicate above chance performance. Values above bars are Cohen's standardized effect sizes dz for differences in accuracy against left- vs. right-handed penalties within goalkeepers and non-goalkeepers. (D) Mean response time (±95% confidence intervals) against left- and right-handed penalties separately for goalkeepers and non-goalkeepers.

Mentions: Here we sought to examine whether hypothesized lower accuracy for the prediction of left- than right-handed action outcomes is associated with corresponding maladjustment in gaze behavior. We chose the 7-m penalty in team-handball as test situation because, among others, the goalkeepers' ability to anticipate a thrower's shot intention has been highlighted as one key feature for successful interception (e.g., Bideau et al., 2004; Cañal-Bruland and Schmidt, 2009; Schorer and Baker, 2009; Bourne et al., 2013; Loffing and Hagemann, 2014). In the experiment, we recorded team-handball goalkeepers' and non-goalkeepers' eye-movements while they watched videos of left- and right-handed 7-m penalties and predicted their directional outcome. To ensure that content of left- and right-handed penalties was symmetrical along the vertical midline of videos, each video was presented in original and horizontally mirrored orientation (e.g., an original right-handed throw toward the top left corner of a goal was also shown as a left-handed throw toward the top right corner; for an illustration see Figure 1A). This methodological step allowed full comparability of left- and right-handed stimuli as a requirement for proper interpretation of possible differences in gaze behavior as a function of an opponent's handedness. We included two differently skilled groups into the protocol to verify that our experiment was capable of capturing components of handball-specific perceptual-cognitive expertise (Mann et al., 2007).


Accuracy of Outcome Anticipation, But Not Gaze Behavior, Differs Against Left- and Right-Handed Penalties in Team-Handball Goalkeeping.

Loffing F, Sölter F, Hagemann N, Strauss B - Front Psychol (2015)

(A) Screenshot of the final frame of a video in original and horizontally mirrored orientation. (B) Mean prediction accuracy against a right- (RH) vs. left-handed (LH) version of an otherwise identical penalty (i.e., 16 different videos) separately for corner, side and height predictions in goalkeepers (GK; ▴) and non-goalkeepers (Non-GK; ○). Symbols below the diagonal dotted blue line represent penalties where predictions were better against a right- than left-handed version (and vice versa). Red dotted lines indicate chance level for right- (vertical lines) and left-handed penalties (horizontal lines). Symbols toward the right (left) and/or above (below) these lines are indicative of above (below) chance performance against right- and left-handed penalties, respectively. (C) Mean prediction accuracy for corner, side and height predictions across all left- and right-handed penalties separately for goalkeepers (GK) and non-goalkeepers (Non-GK). Horizontal dashed red lines represent chance levels for corner (25%), side and height (both 50%) predictions. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals associated with each mean value such that error bars not including the red lines indicate above chance performance. Values above bars are Cohen's standardized effect sizes dz for differences in accuracy against left- vs. right-handed penalties within goalkeepers and non-goalkeepers. (D) Mean response time (±95% confidence intervals) against left- and right-handed penalties separately for goalkeepers and non-goalkeepers.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664728&req=5

Figure 1: (A) Screenshot of the final frame of a video in original and horizontally mirrored orientation. (B) Mean prediction accuracy against a right- (RH) vs. left-handed (LH) version of an otherwise identical penalty (i.e., 16 different videos) separately for corner, side and height predictions in goalkeepers (GK; ▴) and non-goalkeepers (Non-GK; ○). Symbols below the diagonal dotted blue line represent penalties where predictions were better against a right- than left-handed version (and vice versa). Red dotted lines indicate chance level for right- (vertical lines) and left-handed penalties (horizontal lines). Symbols toward the right (left) and/or above (below) these lines are indicative of above (below) chance performance against right- and left-handed penalties, respectively. (C) Mean prediction accuracy for corner, side and height predictions across all left- and right-handed penalties separately for goalkeepers (GK) and non-goalkeepers (Non-GK). Horizontal dashed red lines represent chance levels for corner (25%), side and height (both 50%) predictions. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals associated with each mean value such that error bars not including the red lines indicate above chance performance. Values above bars are Cohen's standardized effect sizes dz for differences in accuracy against left- vs. right-handed penalties within goalkeepers and non-goalkeepers. (D) Mean response time (±95% confidence intervals) against left- and right-handed penalties separately for goalkeepers and non-goalkeepers.
Mentions: Here we sought to examine whether hypothesized lower accuracy for the prediction of left- than right-handed action outcomes is associated with corresponding maladjustment in gaze behavior. We chose the 7-m penalty in team-handball as test situation because, among others, the goalkeepers' ability to anticipate a thrower's shot intention has been highlighted as one key feature for successful interception (e.g., Bideau et al., 2004; Cañal-Bruland and Schmidt, 2009; Schorer and Baker, 2009; Bourne et al., 2013; Loffing and Hagemann, 2014). In the experiment, we recorded team-handball goalkeepers' and non-goalkeepers' eye-movements while they watched videos of left- and right-handed 7-m penalties and predicted their directional outcome. To ensure that content of left- and right-handed penalties was symmetrical along the vertical midline of videos, each video was presented in original and horizontally mirrored orientation (e.g., an original right-handed throw toward the top left corner of a goal was also shown as a left-handed throw toward the top right corner; for an illustration see Figure 1A). This methodological step allowed full comparability of left- and right-handed stimuli as a requirement for proper interpretation of possible differences in gaze behavior as a function of an opponent's handedness. We included two differently skilled groups into the protocol to verify that our experiment was capable of capturing components of handball-specific perceptual-cognitive expertise (Mann et al., 2007).

Bottom Line: As expected, goalkeepers were considerably more accurate than non-goalkeepers and prediction was better against right- than left-handed penalties.Findings suggest that inferior anticipation of left-handed compared to right-handed individuals' action intentions may not be associated with misalignment in gaze behavior.Rather, albeit looking similarly, accuracy differences could be due to observers' differential ability of picking up and interpreting the visual information provided by left- vs. right-handed movements.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology and Society, Institute of Sports and Sports Science, University of Kassel Kassel, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Low perceptual familiarity with relatively rarer left-handed as opposed to more common right-handed individuals may result in athletes' poorer ability to anticipate the former's action intentions. Part of such left-right asymmetry in visual anticipation could be due to an inefficient gaze strategy during confrontation with left-handed individuals. To exemplify, observers may not mirror their gaze when viewing left- vs. right-handed actions but preferentially fixate on an opponent's right body side, irrespective of an opponent's handedness, owing to the predominant exposure to right-handed actions. So far empirical verification of such assumption, however, is lacking. Here we report on an experiment where team-handball goalkeepers' and non-goalkeepers' gaze behavior was recorded while they predicted throw direction of left- and right-handed 7-m penalties shown as videos on a computer monitor. As expected, goalkeepers were considerably more accurate than non-goalkeepers and prediction was better against right- than left-handed penalties. However, there was no indication of differences in gaze measures (i.e., number of fixations, overall and final fixation duration, time-course of horizontal or vertical fixation deviation) as a function of skill group or the penalty-takers' handedness. Findings suggest that inferior anticipation of left-handed compared to right-handed individuals' action intentions may not be associated with misalignment in gaze behavior. Rather, albeit looking similarly, accuracy differences could be due to observers' differential ability of picking up and interpreting the visual information provided by left- vs. right-handed movements.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus