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Social Facilitation of Cognition in Rhesus Monkeys: Audience Vs. Coaction.

Reynaud AJ, Guedj C, Hadj-Bouziane F, Meunier M, Monfardini E - Front Behav Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: Social psychology has long established that the mere presence of a conspecific, be it an active co-performer (coaction effect), or a passive spectator (audience effect) changes behavior in humans.Effect sizes were however four times larger than those typically reported in humans in similar tasks.Both findings are an encouragement to pursue brain and behavior research in the rhesus macaque to help solve the riddle of social facilitation mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: ImpAct Team, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, U1028, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR5292, Lyon Neuroscience Research Center Lyon, France ; Université de Lyon Lyon, France.

ABSTRACT
Social psychology has long established that the mere presence of a conspecific, be it an active co-performer (coaction effect), or a passive spectator (audience effect) changes behavior in humans. Yet, the process mediating this fundamental social influence has so far eluded us. Brain research and its nonhuman primate animal model, the rhesus macaque, could shed new light on this long debated issue. For this approach to be fruitful, however, we need to improve our patchy knowledge about social presence influence in rhesus macaques. Here, seven adults (two dyads and one triad) performed a simple cognitive task consisting in touching images to obtain food treats, alone vs. in presence of a co-performer or a spectator. As in humans, audience sufficed to enhance performance to the same magnitude as coaction. Effect sizes were however four times larger than those typically reported in humans in similar tasks. Both findings are an encouragement to pursue brain and behavior research in the rhesus macaque to help solve the riddle of social facilitation mechanisms.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Trial time-course (A). An image appeared on the screen. If the animal touched it within 30 s, a 5 s positive feedback appeared (green screen) and a reward (dry pasta beads) was delivered. Otherwise, a 5 s negative feedback appeared (a red screen for an incorrect touch, a gray screen for a no response) and no reward was delivered. Testing conditions (B-D). The animals were tested alone (B), in the presence of an idle companion (C) or in the presence of an active companion doing the same task (D).
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Figure 1: Trial time-course (A). An image appeared on the screen. If the animal touched it within 30 s, a 5 s positive feedback appeared (green screen) and a reward (dry pasta beads) was delivered. Otherwise, a 5 s negative feedback appeared (a red screen for an incorrect touch, a gray screen for a no response) and no reward was delivered. Testing conditions (B-D). The animals were tested alone (B), in the presence of an idle companion (C) or in the presence of an active companion doing the same task (D).

Mentions: Seven pictures of neutral objects (e.g., an armchair, a farm tractor, a knit cap) were pseudo-randomly presented on the right or on the left side of the screen always in the same order. Touching the image led to a positive visual feedback plus a reward (~5 tiny beads of dry pasta); the trial time course (Figure 1A) allowed a maximum response rate of 8 responses/min. Each testing session lasted 15 min. For social testing, two animals were placed side by side; each monkey could see and hear the other one but not reach the other's screen or treats. The animals first alternated 1 day alone (Figure 1B), 1 day in the passive presence of a housemate (or neighbor for dyad 1; audience, Figure 1C), and then 1 day alone, 1 day in the presence of a housemate/neighbor doing the same task (coaction, Figure 1D). For the triad, half of the social sessions were carried out in the presence of one partner, the other half in the presence of the other partner; this group's audience scores were included in Monfardini et al. (2015) where they were correlated with changes in brain metabolism and changes in plasma cortisol level.


Social Facilitation of Cognition in Rhesus Monkeys: Audience Vs. Coaction.

Reynaud AJ, Guedj C, Hadj-Bouziane F, Meunier M, Monfardini E - Front Behav Neurosci (2015)

Trial time-course (A). An image appeared on the screen. If the animal touched it within 30 s, a 5 s positive feedback appeared (green screen) and a reward (dry pasta beads) was delivered. Otherwise, a 5 s negative feedback appeared (a red screen for an incorrect touch, a gray screen for a no response) and no reward was delivered. Testing conditions (B-D). The animals were tested alone (B), in the presence of an idle companion (C) or in the presence of an active companion doing the same task (D).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664694&req=5

Figure 1: Trial time-course (A). An image appeared on the screen. If the animal touched it within 30 s, a 5 s positive feedback appeared (green screen) and a reward (dry pasta beads) was delivered. Otherwise, a 5 s negative feedback appeared (a red screen for an incorrect touch, a gray screen for a no response) and no reward was delivered. Testing conditions (B-D). The animals were tested alone (B), in the presence of an idle companion (C) or in the presence of an active companion doing the same task (D).
Mentions: Seven pictures of neutral objects (e.g., an armchair, a farm tractor, a knit cap) were pseudo-randomly presented on the right or on the left side of the screen always in the same order. Touching the image led to a positive visual feedback plus a reward (~5 tiny beads of dry pasta); the trial time course (Figure 1A) allowed a maximum response rate of 8 responses/min. Each testing session lasted 15 min. For social testing, two animals were placed side by side; each monkey could see and hear the other one but not reach the other's screen or treats. The animals first alternated 1 day alone (Figure 1B), 1 day in the passive presence of a housemate (or neighbor for dyad 1; audience, Figure 1C), and then 1 day alone, 1 day in the presence of a housemate/neighbor doing the same task (coaction, Figure 1D). For the triad, half of the social sessions were carried out in the presence of one partner, the other half in the presence of the other partner; this group's audience scores were included in Monfardini et al. (2015) where they were correlated with changes in brain metabolism and changes in plasma cortisol level.

Bottom Line: Social psychology has long established that the mere presence of a conspecific, be it an active co-performer (coaction effect), or a passive spectator (audience effect) changes behavior in humans.Effect sizes were however four times larger than those typically reported in humans in similar tasks.Both findings are an encouragement to pursue brain and behavior research in the rhesus macaque to help solve the riddle of social facilitation mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: ImpAct Team, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, U1028, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR5292, Lyon Neuroscience Research Center Lyon, France ; Université de Lyon Lyon, France.

ABSTRACT
Social psychology has long established that the mere presence of a conspecific, be it an active co-performer (coaction effect), or a passive spectator (audience effect) changes behavior in humans. Yet, the process mediating this fundamental social influence has so far eluded us. Brain research and its nonhuman primate animal model, the rhesus macaque, could shed new light on this long debated issue. For this approach to be fruitful, however, we need to improve our patchy knowledge about social presence influence in rhesus macaques. Here, seven adults (two dyads and one triad) performed a simple cognitive task consisting in touching images to obtain food treats, alone vs. in presence of a co-performer or a spectator. As in humans, audience sufficed to enhance performance to the same magnitude as coaction. Effect sizes were however four times larger than those typically reported in humans in similar tasks. Both findings are an encouragement to pursue brain and behavior research in the rhesus macaque to help solve the riddle of social facilitation mechanisms.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus