Limits...
Absence of Sex-Contingent Gaze Direction Aftereffects Suggests a Limit to Contingencies in Face Aftereffects.

Kloth N, Rhodes G, Schweinberger SR - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: To alleviate this concern, one would need to demonstrate some limit to contingent aftereffects.We found that adaptation induced pronounced gaze direction aftereffects, i.e., participants were biased to perceive small gaze deviations to both the left and right as direct.Importantly, however, aftereffects were identical for male and female test faces, showing that the contingency of face sex and gaze direction participants experienced during the adaptation procedure had no effect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, School of Psychology, The University of Western Australia , Perth, WA, Australia ; DFG Research Unit Person Perception, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena , Jena, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Face aftereffects (e.g., expression aftereffects) can be simultaneously induced in opposite directions for different face categories (e.g., male and female faces). Such aftereffects are typically interpreted as indicating that distinct neural populations code the categories on which adaptation is contingent, e.g., male and female faces. Moreover, they suggest that these distinct populations selectively respond to variations in the secondary stimulus dimension, e.g., emotional expression. However, contingent aftereffects have now been reported for so many different combinations of face characteristics, that one might question this interpretation. Instead, the selectivity might be generated during the adaptation procedure, for instance as a result of associative learning, and not indicate pre-existing response selectivity in the face perception system. To alleviate this concern, one would need to demonstrate some limit to contingent aftereffects. Here, we report a clear limit, showing that gaze direction aftereffects are not contingent on face sex. We tested 36 young Caucasian adults in a gaze adaptation paradigm. We initially established their ability to discriminate the gaze direction of male and female test faces in a pre-adaptation phase. Afterwards, half of the participants adapted to female faces looking left and male faces looking right, and half adapted to the reverse pairing. We established the effects of this adaptation on the perception of gaze direction in subsequently presented male and female test faces. We found that adaptation induced pronounced gaze direction aftereffects, i.e., participants were biased to perceive small gaze deviations to both the left and right as direct. Importantly, however, aftereffects were identical for male and female test faces, showing that the contingency of face sex and gaze direction participants experienced during the adaptation procedure had no effect.

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Gaze direction aftereffects for the five different gaze directions observed for male and female test stimuli. (A) Adaptation to male faces with left gaze and female faces with right gaze. (B) Adaptation to male faces with right gaze and female faces with left gaze. Error bars indicate SEMs.
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Figure 4: Gaze direction aftereffects for the five different gaze directions observed for male and female test stimuli. (A) Adaptation to male faces with left gaze and female faces with right gaze. (B) Adaptation to male faces with right gaze and female faces with left gaze. Error bars indicate SEMs.

Mentions: For statistical analysis, we obtained a measure for the size of the gaze direction aftereffect by subtracting the percentage of “direct” classifications in the pre-adaptation baseline from the percentage of “direct” classifications after adaptation (collapsed across the first and second post-adaptation phase) for each participant and each condition. Positive scores indicate an increase in direct classifications after adaptation while negative scores indicate a decreased in direct classifications compared to baseline (Figure 4). These aftereffect scores were entered into an analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Sex of test face (male, female) and Gaze direction of test face (L10, L05, S00, R05, R10) as within-participants factors and Adaptation Condition (Male:left, Female:right; Male:right, Female:left) as a between-participants factor.


Absence of Sex-Contingent Gaze Direction Aftereffects Suggests a Limit to Contingencies in Face Aftereffects.

Kloth N, Rhodes G, Schweinberger SR - Front Psychol (2015)

Gaze direction aftereffects for the five different gaze directions observed for male and female test stimuli. (A) Adaptation to male faces with left gaze and female faces with right gaze. (B) Adaptation to male faces with right gaze and female faces with left gaze. Error bars indicate SEMs.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
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Figure 4: Gaze direction aftereffects for the five different gaze directions observed for male and female test stimuli. (A) Adaptation to male faces with left gaze and female faces with right gaze. (B) Adaptation to male faces with right gaze and female faces with left gaze. Error bars indicate SEMs.
Mentions: For statistical analysis, we obtained a measure for the size of the gaze direction aftereffect by subtracting the percentage of “direct” classifications in the pre-adaptation baseline from the percentage of “direct” classifications after adaptation (collapsed across the first and second post-adaptation phase) for each participant and each condition. Positive scores indicate an increase in direct classifications after adaptation while negative scores indicate a decreased in direct classifications compared to baseline (Figure 4). These aftereffect scores were entered into an analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Sex of test face (male, female) and Gaze direction of test face (L10, L05, S00, R05, R10) as within-participants factors and Adaptation Condition (Male:left, Female:right; Male:right, Female:left) as a between-participants factor.

Bottom Line: To alleviate this concern, one would need to demonstrate some limit to contingent aftereffects.We found that adaptation induced pronounced gaze direction aftereffects, i.e., participants were biased to perceive small gaze deviations to both the left and right as direct.Importantly, however, aftereffects were identical for male and female test faces, showing that the contingency of face sex and gaze direction participants experienced during the adaptation procedure had no effect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, School of Psychology, The University of Western Australia , Perth, WA, Australia ; DFG Research Unit Person Perception, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena , Jena, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Face aftereffects (e.g., expression aftereffects) can be simultaneously induced in opposite directions for different face categories (e.g., male and female faces). Such aftereffects are typically interpreted as indicating that distinct neural populations code the categories on which adaptation is contingent, e.g., male and female faces. Moreover, they suggest that these distinct populations selectively respond to variations in the secondary stimulus dimension, e.g., emotional expression. However, contingent aftereffects have now been reported for so many different combinations of face characteristics, that one might question this interpretation. Instead, the selectivity might be generated during the adaptation procedure, for instance as a result of associative learning, and not indicate pre-existing response selectivity in the face perception system. To alleviate this concern, one would need to demonstrate some limit to contingent aftereffects. Here, we report a clear limit, showing that gaze direction aftereffects are not contingent on face sex. We tested 36 young Caucasian adults in a gaze adaptation paradigm. We initially established their ability to discriminate the gaze direction of male and female test faces in a pre-adaptation phase. Afterwards, half of the participants adapted to female faces looking left and male faces looking right, and half adapted to the reverse pairing. We established the effects of this adaptation on the perception of gaze direction in subsequently presented male and female test faces. We found that adaptation induced pronounced gaze direction aftereffects, i.e., participants were biased to perceive small gaze deviations to both the left and right as direct. Importantly, however, aftereffects were identical for male and female test faces, showing that the contingency of face sex and gaze direction participants experienced during the adaptation procedure had no effect.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus