Limits...
Absence of Sex-Contingent Gaze Direction Aftereffects Suggests a Limit to Contingencies in Face Aftereffects.

Kloth N, Rhodes G, Schweinberger SR - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: To alleviate this concern, one would need to demonstrate some limit to contingent aftereffects.We found that adaptation induced pronounced gaze direction aftereffects, i.e., participants were biased to perceive small gaze deviations to both the left and right as direct.Importantly, however, aftereffects were identical for male and female test faces, showing that the contingency of face sex and gaze direction participants experienced during the adaptation procedure had no effect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, School of Psychology, The University of Western Australia , Perth, WA, Australia ; DFG Research Unit Person Perception, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena , Jena, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Face aftereffects (e.g., expression aftereffects) can be simultaneously induced in opposite directions for different face categories (e.g., male and female faces). Such aftereffects are typically interpreted as indicating that distinct neural populations code the categories on which adaptation is contingent, e.g., male and female faces. Moreover, they suggest that these distinct populations selectively respond to variations in the secondary stimulus dimension, e.g., emotional expression. However, contingent aftereffects have now been reported for so many different combinations of face characteristics, that one might question this interpretation. Instead, the selectivity might be generated during the adaptation procedure, for instance as a result of associative learning, and not indicate pre-existing response selectivity in the face perception system. To alleviate this concern, one would need to demonstrate some limit to contingent aftereffects. Here, we report a clear limit, showing that gaze direction aftereffects are not contingent on face sex. We tested 36 young Caucasian adults in a gaze adaptation paradigm. We initially established their ability to discriminate the gaze direction of male and female test faces in a pre-adaptation phase. Afterwards, half of the participants adapted to female faces looking left and male faces looking right, and half adapted to the reverse pairing. We established the effects of this adaptation on the perception of gaze direction in subsequently presented male and female test faces. We found that adaptation induced pronounced gaze direction aftereffects, i.e., participants were biased to perceive small gaze deviations to both the left and right as direct. Importantly, however, aftereffects were identical for male and female test faces, showing that the contingency of face sex and gaze direction participants experienced during the adaptation procedure had no effect.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Trial procedure in the five stages of the experiment. This example illustrates trials as seen by participants who adapted to female faces with left gaze and male faces with right gaze. The other half of the participants adapted to male faces with left gaze and female faces with right gaze. Please note that the depicted stimulus identities are different from those shown in the actual experiment.
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Figure 2: Trial procedure in the five stages of the experiment. This example illustrates trials as seen by participants who adapted to female faces with left gaze and male faces with right gaze. The other half of the participants adapted to male faces with left gaze and female faces with right gaze. Please note that the depicted stimulus identities are different from those shown in the actual experiment.

Mentions: The experiment consisted of five consecutive phases (Figure 2). The baseline phase was identical for all participants and served to establish their general ability to determine the gaze direction of the test faces without prior adaptation. Sixty test faces (12 identities × 5 gaze directions) were presented twice in random order. Participants indicated for each face whether it showed left, direct or right gaze direction by pressing one of three labeled response keys. In each trial, a question mark was first presented (800 ms), was then replaced by the test face (400 ms), and followed by a blank screen (2000 ms) during which participants responded. After half of the trials, participants were given a self-paced break. The baseline phase took 6.5 min to complete.


Absence of Sex-Contingent Gaze Direction Aftereffects Suggests a Limit to Contingencies in Face Aftereffects.

Kloth N, Rhodes G, Schweinberger SR - Front Psychol (2015)

Trial procedure in the five stages of the experiment. This example illustrates trials as seen by participants who adapted to female faces with left gaze and male faces with right gaze. The other half of the participants adapted to male faces with left gaze and female faces with right gaze. Please note that the depicted stimulus identities are different from those shown in the actual experiment.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664652&req=5

Figure 2: Trial procedure in the five stages of the experiment. This example illustrates trials as seen by participants who adapted to female faces with left gaze and male faces with right gaze. The other half of the participants adapted to male faces with left gaze and female faces with right gaze. Please note that the depicted stimulus identities are different from those shown in the actual experiment.
Mentions: The experiment consisted of five consecutive phases (Figure 2). The baseline phase was identical for all participants and served to establish their general ability to determine the gaze direction of the test faces without prior adaptation. Sixty test faces (12 identities × 5 gaze directions) were presented twice in random order. Participants indicated for each face whether it showed left, direct or right gaze direction by pressing one of three labeled response keys. In each trial, a question mark was first presented (800 ms), was then replaced by the test face (400 ms), and followed by a blank screen (2000 ms) during which participants responded. After half of the trials, participants were given a self-paced break. The baseline phase took 6.5 min to complete.

Bottom Line: To alleviate this concern, one would need to demonstrate some limit to contingent aftereffects.We found that adaptation induced pronounced gaze direction aftereffects, i.e., participants were biased to perceive small gaze deviations to both the left and right as direct.Importantly, however, aftereffects were identical for male and female test faces, showing that the contingency of face sex and gaze direction participants experienced during the adaptation procedure had no effect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, School of Psychology, The University of Western Australia , Perth, WA, Australia ; DFG Research Unit Person Perception, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena , Jena, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Face aftereffects (e.g., expression aftereffects) can be simultaneously induced in opposite directions for different face categories (e.g., male and female faces). Such aftereffects are typically interpreted as indicating that distinct neural populations code the categories on which adaptation is contingent, e.g., male and female faces. Moreover, they suggest that these distinct populations selectively respond to variations in the secondary stimulus dimension, e.g., emotional expression. However, contingent aftereffects have now been reported for so many different combinations of face characteristics, that one might question this interpretation. Instead, the selectivity might be generated during the adaptation procedure, for instance as a result of associative learning, and not indicate pre-existing response selectivity in the face perception system. To alleviate this concern, one would need to demonstrate some limit to contingent aftereffects. Here, we report a clear limit, showing that gaze direction aftereffects are not contingent on face sex. We tested 36 young Caucasian adults in a gaze adaptation paradigm. We initially established their ability to discriminate the gaze direction of male and female test faces in a pre-adaptation phase. Afterwards, half of the participants adapted to female faces looking left and male faces looking right, and half adapted to the reverse pairing. We established the effects of this adaptation on the perception of gaze direction in subsequently presented male and female test faces. We found that adaptation induced pronounced gaze direction aftereffects, i.e., participants were biased to perceive small gaze deviations to both the left and right as direct. Importantly, however, aftereffects were identical for male and female test faces, showing that the contingency of face sex and gaze direction participants experienced during the adaptation procedure had no effect.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus