Limits...
Absence of Sex-Contingent Gaze Direction Aftereffects Suggests a Limit to Contingencies in Face Aftereffects.

Kloth N, Rhodes G, Schweinberger SR - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: To alleviate this concern, one would need to demonstrate some limit to contingent aftereffects.We found that adaptation induced pronounced gaze direction aftereffects, i.e., participants were biased to perceive small gaze deviations to both the left and right as direct.Importantly, however, aftereffects were identical for male and female test faces, showing that the contingency of face sex and gaze direction participants experienced during the adaptation procedure had no effect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, School of Psychology, The University of Western Australia , Perth, WA, Australia ; DFG Research Unit Person Perception, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena , Jena, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Face aftereffects (e.g., expression aftereffects) can be simultaneously induced in opposite directions for different face categories (e.g., male and female faces). Such aftereffects are typically interpreted as indicating that distinct neural populations code the categories on which adaptation is contingent, e.g., male and female faces. Moreover, they suggest that these distinct populations selectively respond to variations in the secondary stimulus dimension, e.g., emotional expression. However, contingent aftereffects have now been reported for so many different combinations of face characteristics, that one might question this interpretation. Instead, the selectivity might be generated during the adaptation procedure, for instance as a result of associative learning, and not indicate pre-existing response selectivity in the face perception system. To alleviate this concern, one would need to demonstrate some limit to contingent aftereffects. Here, we report a clear limit, showing that gaze direction aftereffects are not contingent on face sex. We tested 36 young Caucasian adults in a gaze adaptation paradigm. We initially established their ability to discriminate the gaze direction of male and female test faces in a pre-adaptation phase. Afterwards, half of the participants adapted to female faces looking left and male faces looking right, and half adapted to the reverse pairing. We established the effects of this adaptation on the perception of gaze direction in subsequently presented male and female test faces. We found that adaptation induced pronounced gaze direction aftereffects, i.e., participants were biased to perceive small gaze deviations to both the left and right as direct. Importantly, however, aftereffects were identical for male and female test faces, showing that the contingency of face sex and gaze direction participants experienced during the adaptation procedure had no effect.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Pattern of possible results that would indicate sex-contingency of gaze direction aftereffects. The proportion of “direct” responses only increases for test faces with the same gaze direction as their sex-congruent adaptor. (B) Pattern of possible results indicating absence of sex-contingency of gaze direction aftereffects. Irrespective of the adaptation condition and the sex of the test face, there is a general increase in “direct” responses to all test faces.
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Figure 1: (A) Pattern of possible results that would indicate sex-contingency of gaze direction aftereffects. The proportion of “direct” responses only increases for test faces with the same gaze direction as their sex-congruent adaptor. (B) Pattern of possible results indicating absence of sex-contingency of gaze direction aftereffects. Irrespective of the adaptation condition and the sex of the test face, there is a general increase in “direct” responses to all test faces.

Mentions: Here, we studied whether gaze direction aftereffects can be made contingent on face sex. We tested two groups of participants, the first of which adapted to male faces with leftward gaze and female faces with rightward gaze. The second group adapted to male faces with rightward gaze and female faces with leftward gaze. Sex-contingent gaze direction aftereffects would be indicated by different gaze direction aftereffect patterns for male and female test faces between the two groups of participants. The first group would be expected to falsely categorize male faces with left gaze and female faces with right gaze as looking straight ahead. For the second group, however, the opposite pattern would be predicted, resulting in incorrect perceptions of direct gaze from male faces with right gaze and female faces with left gaze (Figure 1A).


Absence of Sex-Contingent Gaze Direction Aftereffects Suggests a Limit to Contingencies in Face Aftereffects.

Kloth N, Rhodes G, Schweinberger SR - Front Psychol (2015)

(A) Pattern of possible results that would indicate sex-contingency of gaze direction aftereffects. The proportion of “direct” responses only increases for test faces with the same gaze direction as their sex-congruent adaptor. (B) Pattern of possible results indicating absence of sex-contingency of gaze direction aftereffects. Irrespective of the adaptation condition and the sex of the test face, there is a general increase in “direct” responses to all test faces.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664652&req=5

Figure 1: (A) Pattern of possible results that would indicate sex-contingency of gaze direction aftereffects. The proportion of “direct” responses only increases for test faces with the same gaze direction as their sex-congruent adaptor. (B) Pattern of possible results indicating absence of sex-contingency of gaze direction aftereffects. Irrespective of the adaptation condition and the sex of the test face, there is a general increase in “direct” responses to all test faces.
Mentions: Here, we studied whether gaze direction aftereffects can be made contingent on face sex. We tested two groups of participants, the first of which adapted to male faces with leftward gaze and female faces with rightward gaze. The second group adapted to male faces with rightward gaze and female faces with leftward gaze. Sex-contingent gaze direction aftereffects would be indicated by different gaze direction aftereffect patterns for male and female test faces between the two groups of participants. The first group would be expected to falsely categorize male faces with left gaze and female faces with right gaze as looking straight ahead. For the second group, however, the opposite pattern would be predicted, resulting in incorrect perceptions of direct gaze from male faces with right gaze and female faces with left gaze (Figure 1A).

Bottom Line: To alleviate this concern, one would need to demonstrate some limit to contingent aftereffects.We found that adaptation induced pronounced gaze direction aftereffects, i.e., participants were biased to perceive small gaze deviations to both the left and right as direct.Importantly, however, aftereffects were identical for male and female test faces, showing that the contingency of face sex and gaze direction participants experienced during the adaptation procedure had no effect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, School of Psychology, The University of Western Australia , Perth, WA, Australia ; DFG Research Unit Person Perception, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena , Jena, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Face aftereffects (e.g., expression aftereffects) can be simultaneously induced in opposite directions for different face categories (e.g., male and female faces). Such aftereffects are typically interpreted as indicating that distinct neural populations code the categories on which adaptation is contingent, e.g., male and female faces. Moreover, they suggest that these distinct populations selectively respond to variations in the secondary stimulus dimension, e.g., emotional expression. However, contingent aftereffects have now been reported for so many different combinations of face characteristics, that one might question this interpretation. Instead, the selectivity might be generated during the adaptation procedure, for instance as a result of associative learning, and not indicate pre-existing response selectivity in the face perception system. To alleviate this concern, one would need to demonstrate some limit to contingent aftereffects. Here, we report a clear limit, showing that gaze direction aftereffects are not contingent on face sex. We tested 36 young Caucasian adults in a gaze adaptation paradigm. We initially established their ability to discriminate the gaze direction of male and female test faces in a pre-adaptation phase. Afterwards, half of the participants adapted to female faces looking left and male faces looking right, and half adapted to the reverse pairing. We established the effects of this adaptation on the perception of gaze direction in subsequently presented male and female test faces. We found that adaptation induced pronounced gaze direction aftereffects, i.e., participants were biased to perceive small gaze deviations to both the left and right as direct. Importantly, however, aftereffects were identical for male and female test faces, showing that the contingency of face sex and gaze direction participants experienced during the adaptation procedure had no effect.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus