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Nitrification and Nitrifying Bacteria in a Coastal Microbial Mat.

Fan H, Bolhuis H, Stal LJ - Front Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: In all three mats AOB amoA genes were significantly more abundant than AOA amoA genes.The abundance of neither AOB nor AOA amoA genes correlated with the potential nitrification rates, but AOB amoA transcripts were positively correlated with the potential nitrification rate.We conclude that AOB are responsible for the bulk of the ammonium oxidation in these coastal microbial mats.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Marine Microbiology, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research Yerseke, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
The first step of nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite, can be performed by ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) or ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). We investigated the presence of these two groups in three structurally different types of coastal microbial mats that develop along the tidal gradient on the North Sea beach of the Dutch barrier island Schiermonnikoog. The abundance and transcription of amoA, a gene encoding for the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase that is present in both AOA and AOB, were assessed and the potential nitrification rates in these mats were measured. The potential nitrification rates in the three mat types were highest in autumn and lowest in summer. AOB and AOA amoA genes were present in all three mat types. The composition of the AOA and AOB communities in the mats of the tidal and intertidal stations, based on the diversity of amoA, were similar and clustered separately from the supratidal microbial mat. In all three mats AOB amoA genes were significantly more abundant than AOA amoA genes. The abundance of neither AOB nor AOA amoA genes correlated with the potential nitrification rates, but AOB amoA transcripts were positively correlated with the potential nitrification rate. The composition and abundance of amoA genes seemed to be partly driven by salinity, ammonium, temperature, and the nitrate/nitrite concentration. We conclude that AOB are responsible for the bulk of the ammonium oxidation in these coastal microbial mats.

No MeSH data available.


Canonical correspondence analysis of amoA community composition of mat samples. (A) β-AOB amoA gene, (B) AOA amoA gene. Points represent the amoA gene community from seasonal samples at the indicated station. Arrows represent the relationship between environmental parameters with the amoA communities.
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Figure 3: Canonical correspondence analysis of amoA community composition of mat samples. (A) β-AOB amoA gene, (B) AOA amoA gene. Points represent the amoA gene community from seasonal samples at the indicated station. Arrows represent the relationship between environmental parameters with the amoA communities.

Mentions: Canonical correspondence analysis showed that ammonia oxidizer (AOA and AOB) communities were significantly correlated with salinity, temperature, ammonium and nitrate content (based on 999 Monte Carlo permutations, p = 0.001) (Figure 3). The variables in the first and second axes explained 49.6 and 47.2% of the total variation of AOB and AOA composition, respectively.


Nitrification and Nitrifying Bacteria in a Coastal Microbial Mat.

Fan H, Bolhuis H, Stal LJ - Front Microbiol (2015)

Canonical correspondence analysis of amoA community composition of mat samples. (A) β-AOB amoA gene, (B) AOA amoA gene. Points represent the amoA gene community from seasonal samples at the indicated station. Arrows represent the relationship between environmental parameters with the amoA communities.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664649&req=5

Figure 3: Canonical correspondence analysis of amoA community composition of mat samples. (A) β-AOB amoA gene, (B) AOA amoA gene. Points represent the amoA gene community from seasonal samples at the indicated station. Arrows represent the relationship between environmental parameters with the amoA communities.
Mentions: Canonical correspondence analysis showed that ammonia oxidizer (AOA and AOB) communities were significantly correlated with salinity, temperature, ammonium and nitrate content (based on 999 Monte Carlo permutations, p = 0.001) (Figure 3). The variables in the first and second axes explained 49.6 and 47.2% of the total variation of AOB and AOA composition, respectively.

Bottom Line: In all three mats AOB amoA genes were significantly more abundant than AOA amoA genes.The abundance of neither AOB nor AOA amoA genes correlated with the potential nitrification rates, but AOB amoA transcripts were positively correlated with the potential nitrification rate.We conclude that AOB are responsible for the bulk of the ammonium oxidation in these coastal microbial mats.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Marine Microbiology, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research Yerseke, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
The first step of nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite, can be performed by ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) or ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). We investigated the presence of these two groups in three structurally different types of coastal microbial mats that develop along the tidal gradient on the North Sea beach of the Dutch barrier island Schiermonnikoog. The abundance and transcription of amoA, a gene encoding for the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase that is present in both AOA and AOB, were assessed and the potential nitrification rates in these mats were measured. The potential nitrification rates in the three mat types were highest in autumn and lowest in summer. AOB and AOA amoA genes were present in all three mat types. The composition of the AOA and AOB communities in the mats of the tidal and intertidal stations, based on the diversity of amoA, were similar and clustered separately from the supratidal microbial mat. In all three mats AOB amoA genes were significantly more abundant than AOA amoA genes. The abundance of neither AOB nor AOA amoA genes correlated with the potential nitrification rates, but AOB amoA transcripts were positively correlated with the potential nitrification rate. The composition and abundance of amoA genes seemed to be partly driven by salinity, ammonium, temperature, and the nitrate/nitrite concentration. We conclude that AOB are responsible for the bulk of the ammonium oxidation in these coastal microbial mats.

No MeSH data available.