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Nitrification and Nitrifying Bacteria in a Coastal Microbial Mat.

Fan H, Bolhuis H, Stal LJ - Front Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: In all three mats AOB amoA genes were significantly more abundant than AOA amoA genes.The abundance of neither AOB nor AOA amoA genes correlated with the potential nitrification rates, but AOB amoA transcripts were positively correlated with the potential nitrification rate.We conclude that AOB are responsible for the bulk of the ammonium oxidation in these coastal microbial mats.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Marine Microbiology, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research Yerseke, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
The first step of nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite, can be performed by ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) or ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). We investigated the presence of these two groups in three structurally different types of coastal microbial mats that develop along the tidal gradient on the North Sea beach of the Dutch barrier island Schiermonnikoog. The abundance and transcription of amoA, a gene encoding for the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase that is present in both AOA and AOB, were assessed and the potential nitrification rates in these mats were measured. The potential nitrification rates in the three mat types were highest in autumn and lowest in summer. AOB and AOA amoA genes were present in all three mat types. The composition of the AOA and AOB communities in the mats of the tidal and intertidal stations, based on the diversity of amoA, were similar and clustered separately from the supratidal microbial mat. In all three mats AOB amoA genes were significantly more abundant than AOA amoA genes. The abundance of neither AOB nor AOA amoA genes correlated with the potential nitrification rates, but AOB amoA transcripts were positively correlated with the potential nitrification rate. The composition and abundance of amoA genes seemed to be partly driven by salinity, ammonium, temperature, and the nitrate/nitrite concentration. We conclude that AOB are responsible for the bulk of the ammonium oxidation in these coastal microbial mats.

No MeSH data available.


Cluster analysis of amoA community composition at the different sampling stations. (A) Cluster analysis of betaproteobacterial amoA gene composition (B) Cluster analysis of archaeal amoA gene composition. Sample codes consist of the sampling station and the month of sampling.
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Figure 2: Cluster analysis of amoA community composition at the different sampling stations. (A) Cluster analysis of betaproteobacterial amoA gene composition (B) Cluster analysis of archaeal amoA gene composition. Sample codes consist of the sampling station and the month of sampling.

Mentions: Cluster analysis revealed that the AOB community composition (based on the amoA gene diversity) was largely the same in summer and winter in each of the Stations 1 and 3. Station 2 and Station 3 clustered and were dissimilar from Station 1 (Figure 2A). A similar distribution was also found for the AOA community: Station 2 and Station 3 were more similar and separated from the community of Station 1. In addition, the July AOA community composition was separated from that of January in the Stations 2 and 3 (Figure 2B).


Nitrification and Nitrifying Bacteria in a Coastal Microbial Mat.

Fan H, Bolhuis H, Stal LJ - Front Microbiol (2015)

Cluster analysis of amoA community composition at the different sampling stations. (A) Cluster analysis of betaproteobacterial amoA gene composition (B) Cluster analysis of archaeal amoA gene composition. Sample codes consist of the sampling station and the month of sampling.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664649&req=5

Figure 2: Cluster analysis of amoA community composition at the different sampling stations. (A) Cluster analysis of betaproteobacterial amoA gene composition (B) Cluster analysis of archaeal amoA gene composition. Sample codes consist of the sampling station and the month of sampling.
Mentions: Cluster analysis revealed that the AOB community composition (based on the amoA gene diversity) was largely the same in summer and winter in each of the Stations 1 and 3. Station 2 and Station 3 clustered and were dissimilar from Station 1 (Figure 2A). A similar distribution was also found for the AOA community: Station 2 and Station 3 were more similar and separated from the community of Station 1. In addition, the July AOA community composition was separated from that of January in the Stations 2 and 3 (Figure 2B).

Bottom Line: In all three mats AOB amoA genes were significantly more abundant than AOA amoA genes.The abundance of neither AOB nor AOA amoA genes correlated with the potential nitrification rates, but AOB amoA transcripts were positively correlated with the potential nitrification rate.We conclude that AOB are responsible for the bulk of the ammonium oxidation in these coastal microbial mats.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Marine Microbiology, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research Yerseke, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
The first step of nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite, can be performed by ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) or ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). We investigated the presence of these two groups in three structurally different types of coastal microbial mats that develop along the tidal gradient on the North Sea beach of the Dutch barrier island Schiermonnikoog. The abundance and transcription of amoA, a gene encoding for the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase that is present in both AOA and AOB, were assessed and the potential nitrification rates in these mats were measured. The potential nitrification rates in the three mat types were highest in autumn and lowest in summer. AOB and AOA amoA genes were present in all three mat types. The composition of the AOA and AOB communities in the mats of the tidal and intertidal stations, based on the diversity of amoA, were similar and clustered separately from the supratidal microbial mat. In all three mats AOB amoA genes were significantly more abundant than AOA amoA genes. The abundance of neither AOB nor AOA amoA genes correlated with the potential nitrification rates, but AOB amoA transcripts were positively correlated with the potential nitrification rate. The composition and abundance of amoA genes seemed to be partly driven by salinity, ammonium, temperature, and the nitrate/nitrite concentration. We conclude that AOB are responsible for the bulk of the ammonium oxidation in these coastal microbial mats.

No MeSH data available.