Limits...
Odor Perception in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and its Relationship to Food Neophobia.

Luisier AC, Petitpierre G, Ferdenzi C, Clerc Bérod A, Giboreau A, Rouby C, Bensafi M - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: Results revealed that (i) significant hedonic discrimination between attractive and aversive odors was observed in NT (p = 0.005; d = 2.378) and ASD children (p = 0.042; d = 0.941), and (ii) hedonic discrimination level was negatively correlated with food neophobia scores in ASD (p = 0.007) but not NT children.In conclusion, this study offers new insights into odor perception in ASD children, highlighting a relationship between odor hedonic reactivity and eating behavior.This opens up new perspectives on both (i) the role of olfaction in the construction of eating behavior in ASD children, and (ii) the measurement and meaning of food neophobia in this population.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Center in Neurosciences of Lyon, CNRS UMR5292, INSERM U1028, Claude Bernard University Lyon 1 Lyon, France ; Senso5 Foundation Sion, Switzerland ; Institute of Special Education, University of Fribourg Fribourg, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Atypical sensory functioning in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been well documented in the last decade for the visual, tactile and auditory systems, but olfaction in ASD is still understudied. The aim of the present study was to examine whether children with ASD and neuro-typically (NT) developed children differed in odor perception, at the cognitive (familiarity and identification ability), sensorimotor (olfactory exploration) and affective levels (hedonic evaluation). Because an important function of the sense of smell is its involvement in eating, from food selection to appreciation and recognition, a potential link between odor perception and food neophobia was also investigated. To these ends, 10 children between 6 and 13 years old diagnosed with ASD and 10 NT control children were tested. To compare performance, 16 stimuli were used and food neophobia was assessed by the parents on a short food neophobia scale. Results revealed that (i) significant hedonic discrimination between attractive and aversive odors was observed in NT (p = 0.005; d = 2.378) and ASD children (p = 0.042; d = 0.941), and (ii) hedonic discrimination level was negatively correlated with food neophobia scores in ASD (p = 0.007) but not NT children. In conclusion, this study offers new insights into odor perception in ASD children, highlighting a relationship between odor hedonic reactivity and eating behavior. This opens up new perspectives on both (i) the role of olfaction in the construction of eating behavior in ASD children, and (ii) the measurement and meaning of food neophobia in this population.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Behavioral data (ii): mean duration of all explorations and duration of first exploration. (A–C) For mean duration of all explorations, a trend toward shorter mean duration for the unpleasant smell (Trimethylamine) in ASD than NT children was found (p = 0.086). The other inter-group or intra-group comparisons were non-significant. (D–F) For duration of first exploration, a significant effect of group was observed for Trimethylamine: ASD children explored this unpleasant odor less than NT children (p = 0.050). Moreover, a trend toward shorter exploration duration for Trimethylamine than Carvone was observed in the ASD group (p = 0.066).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664613&req=5

Figure 4: Behavioral data (ii): mean duration of all explorations and duration of first exploration. (A–C) For mean duration of all explorations, a trend toward shorter mean duration for the unpleasant smell (Trimethylamine) in ASD than NT children was found (p = 0.086). The other inter-group or intra-group comparisons were non-significant. (D–F) For duration of first exploration, a significant effect of group was observed for Trimethylamine: ASD children explored this unpleasant odor less than NT children (p = 0.050). Moreover, a trend toward shorter exploration duration for Trimethylamine than Carvone was observed in the ASD group (p = 0.066).

Mentions: For “mean duration of all explorations” (Figures 4A–C), there was a trend toward a lower value for mTrimethylamine in ASD children than NT children, but analysis did not show any significant influence of group for mg, mL-Carvone, msimple, or mmixture. Moreover, intra-group comparison did not show any significant difference between Carvone and Trimethylamine, or between mixtures and their individual components, in the NT or ASD group.


Odor Perception in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and its Relationship to Food Neophobia.

Luisier AC, Petitpierre G, Ferdenzi C, Clerc Bérod A, Giboreau A, Rouby C, Bensafi M - Front Psychol (2015)

Behavioral data (ii): mean duration of all explorations and duration of first exploration. (A–C) For mean duration of all explorations, a trend toward shorter mean duration for the unpleasant smell (Trimethylamine) in ASD than NT children was found (p = 0.086). The other inter-group or intra-group comparisons were non-significant. (D–F) For duration of first exploration, a significant effect of group was observed for Trimethylamine: ASD children explored this unpleasant odor less than NT children (p = 0.050). Moreover, a trend toward shorter exploration duration for Trimethylamine than Carvone was observed in the ASD group (p = 0.066).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664613&req=5

Figure 4: Behavioral data (ii): mean duration of all explorations and duration of first exploration. (A–C) For mean duration of all explorations, a trend toward shorter mean duration for the unpleasant smell (Trimethylamine) in ASD than NT children was found (p = 0.086). The other inter-group or intra-group comparisons were non-significant. (D–F) For duration of first exploration, a significant effect of group was observed for Trimethylamine: ASD children explored this unpleasant odor less than NT children (p = 0.050). Moreover, a trend toward shorter exploration duration for Trimethylamine than Carvone was observed in the ASD group (p = 0.066).
Mentions: For “mean duration of all explorations” (Figures 4A–C), there was a trend toward a lower value for mTrimethylamine in ASD children than NT children, but analysis did not show any significant influence of group for mg, mL-Carvone, msimple, or mmixture. Moreover, intra-group comparison did not show any significant difference between Carvone and Trimethylamine, or between mixtures and their individual components, in the NT or ASD group.

Bottom Line: Results revealed that (i) significant hedonic discrimination between attractive and aversive odors was observed in NT (p = 0.005; d = 2.378) and ASD children (p = 0.042; d = 0.941), and (ii) hedonic discrimination level was negatively correlated with food neophobia scores in ASD (p = 0.007) but not NT children.In conclusion, this study offers new insights into odor perception in ASD children, highlighting a relationship between odor hedonic reactivity and eating behavior.This opens up new perspectives on both (i) the role of olfaction in the construction of eating behavior in ASD children, and (ii) the measurement and meaning of food neophobia in this population.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Center in Neurosciences of Lyon, CNRS UMR5292, INSERM U1028, Claude Bernard University Lyon 1 Lyon, France ; Senso5 Foundation Sion, Switzerland ; Institute of Special Education, University of Fribourg Fribourg, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Atypical sensory functioning in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been well documented in the last decade for the visual, tactile and auditory systems, but olfaction in ASD is still understudied. The aim of the present study was to examine whether children with ASD and neuro-typically (NT) developed children differed in odor perception, at the cognitive (familiarity and identification ability), sensorimotor (olfactory exploration) and affective levels (hedonic evaluation). Because an important function of the sense of smell is its involvement in eating, from food selection to appreciation and recognition, a potential link between odor perception and food neophobia was also investigated. To these ends, 10 children between 6 and 13 years old diagnosed with ASD and 10 NT control children were tested. To compare performance, 16 stimuli were used and food neophobia was assessed by the parents on a short food neophobia scale. Results revealed that (i) significant hedonic discrimination between attractive and aversive odors was observed in NT (p = 0.005; d = 2.378) and ASD children (p = 0.042; d = 0.941), and (ii) hedonic discrimination level was negatively correlated with food neophobia scores in ASD (p = 0.007) but not NT children. In conclusion, this study offers new insights into odor perception in ASD children, highlighting a relationship between odor hedonic reactivity and eating behavior. This opens up new perspectives on both (i) the role of olfaction in the construction of eating behavior in ASD children, and (ii) the measurement and meaning of food neophobia in this population.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus