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Odor Perception in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and its Relationship to Food Neophobia.

Luisier AC, Petitpierre G, Ferdenzi C, Clerc Bérod A, Giboreau A, Rouby C, Bensafi M - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: Results revealed that (i) significant hedonic discrimination between attractive and aversive odors was observed in NT (p = 0.005; d = 2.378) and ASD children (p = 0.042; d = 0.941), and (ii) hedonic discrimination level was negatively correlated with food neophobia scores in ASD (p = 0.007) but not NT children.In conclusion, this study offers new insights into odor perception in ASD children, highlighting a relationship between odor hedonic reactivity and eating behavior.This opens up new perspectives on both (i) the role of olfaction in the construction of eating behavior in ASD children, and (ii) the measurement and meaning of food neophobia in this population.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Center in Neurosciences of Lyon, CNRS UMR5292, INSERM U1028, Claude Bernard University Lyon 1 Lyon, France ; Senso5 Foundation Sion, Switzerland ; Institute of Special Education, University of Fribourg Fribourg, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Atypical sensory functioning in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been well documented in the last decade for the visual, tactile and auditory systems, but olfaction in ASD is still understudied. The aim of the present study was to examine whether children with ASD and neuro-typically (NT) developed children differed in odor perception, at the cognitive (familiarity and identification ability), sensorimotor (olfactory exploration) and affective levels (hedonic evaluation). Because an important function of the sense of smell is its involvement in eating, from food selection to appreciation and recognition, a potential link between odor perception and food neophobia was also investigated. To these ends, 10 children between 6 and 13 years old diagnosed with ASD and 10 NT control children were tested. To compare performance, 16 stimuli were used and food neophobia was assessed by the parents on a short food neophobia scale. Results revealed that (i) significant hedonic discrimination between attractive and aversive odors was observed in NT (p = 0.005; d = 2.378) and ASD children (p = 0.042; d = 0.941), and (ii) hedonic discrimination level was negatively correlated with food neophobia scores in ASD (p = 0.007) but not NT children. In conclusion, this study offers new insights into odor perception in ASD children, highlighting a relationship between odor hedonic reactivity and eating behavior. This opens up new perspectives on both (i) the role of olfaction in the construction of eating behavior in ASD children, and (ii) the measurement and meaning of food neophobia in this population.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Odor pleasantness. For odor pleasantness ratings, no difference was observed between groups when considerign all odors (A). A significant effect of valence was observed in the NT group: the smell of Carvone was perceived as significantly more pleasant than the smell of Trimethylamine (p = 0.005). A similar effect of valence was observed in the ASD group, although the magnitude of the effect was lower (p = 0.042) (B). It noteworthy that a trend toward lower pleasantness of odor mixtures than the individual components was observed in the ASD group (p = 0.059) (C).
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Figure 2: Odor pleasantness. For odor pleasantness ratings, no difference was observed between groups when considerign all odors (A). A significant effect of valence was observed in the NT group: the smell of Carvone was perceived as significantly more pleasant than the smell of Trimethylamine (p = 0.005). A similar effect of valence was observed in the ASD group, although the magnitude of the effect was lower (p = 0.042) (B). It noteworthy that a trend toward lower pleasantness of odor mixtures than the individual components was observed in the ASD group (p = 0.059) (C).

Mentions: With regard to odor pleasantness (Table 1; Figure 2), no significant effect of group was observed for mg, mL-Carvone, mTrimethylamine, msimple, or mmixture, but intra-group comparison revealed that Carvone was rated as significantly more pleasant than Trimethylamine by NT children, and by ASD children. To assess the magnitude of this effect in each group, we performed an effect size analysis using Cohen’s d for paired samples. Results obtained with a classical bootstrap procedure (1000 resamples for each group) showed that effect size was greater in NT (Cohen’s d: 2.378; Percentile Bootstrap 95% Confidence Interval or CI: 1.709–4.487) than in ASD (Cohen’s d: 0.941; Percentile Bootstrap 95% CI: 0.503–1.881), although the two CI overlapped slightly.


Odor Perception in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and its Relationship to Food Neophobia.

Luisier AC, Petitpierre G, Ferdenzi C, Clerc Bérod A, Giboreau A, Rouby C, Bensafi M - Front Psychol (2015)

Odor pleasantness. For odor pleasantness ratings, no difference was observed between groups when considerign all odors (A). A significant effect of valence was observed in the NT group: the smell of Carvone was perceived as significantly more pleasant than the smell of Trimethylamine (p = 0.005). A similar effect of valence was observed in the ASD group, although the magnitude of the effect was lower (p = 0.042) (B). It noteworthy that a trend toward lower pleasantness of odor mixtures than the individual components was observed in the ASD group (p = 0.059) (C).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664613&req=5

Figure 2: Odor pleasantness. For odor pleasantness ratings, no difference was observed between groups when considerign all odors (A). A significant effect of valence was observed in the NT group: the smell of Carvone was perceived as significantly more pleasant than the smell of Trimethylamine (p = 0.005). A similar effect of valence was observed in the ASD group, although the magnitude of the effect was lower (p = 0.042) (B). It noteworthy that a trend toward lower pleasantness of odor mixtures than the individual components was observed in the ASD group (p = 0.059) (C).
Mentions: With regard to odor pleasantness (Table 1; Figure 2), no significant effect of group was observed for mg, mL-Carvone, mTrimethylamine, msimple, or mmixture, but intra-group comparison revealed that Carvone was rated as significantly more pleasant than Trimethylamine by NT children, and by ASD children. To assess the magnitude of this effect in each group, we performed an effect size analysis using Cohen’s d for paired samples. Results obtained with a classical bootstrap procedure (1000 resamples for each group) showed that effect size was greater in NT (Cohen’s d: 2.378; Percentile Bootstrap 95% Confidence Interval or CI: 1.709–4.487) than in ASD (Cohen’s d: 0.941; Percentile Bootstrap 95% CI: 0.503–1.881), although the two CI overlapped slightly.

Bottom Line: Results revealed that (i) significant hedonic discrimination between attractive and aversive odors was observed in NT (p = 0.005; d = 2.378) and ASD children (p = 0.042; d = 0.941), and (ii) hedonic discrimination level was negatively correlated with food neophobia scores in ASD (p = 0.007) but not NT children.In conclusion, this study offers new insights into odor perception in ASD children, highlighting a relationship between odor hedonic reactivity and eating behavior.This opens up new perspectives on both (i) the role of olfaction in the construction of eating behavior in ASD children, and (ii) the measurement and meaning of food neophobia in this population.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Center in Neurosciences of Lyon, CNRS UMR5292, INSERM U1028, Claude Bernard University Lyon 1 Lyon, France ; Senso5 Foundation Sion, Switzerland ; Institute of Special Education, University of Fribourg Fribourg, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Atypical sensory functioning in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been well documented in the last decade for the visual, tactile and auditory systems, but olfaction in ASD is still understudied. The aim of the present study was to examine whether children with ASD and neuro-typically (NT) developed children differed in odor perception, at the cognitive (familiarity and identification ability), sensorimotor (olfactory exploration) and affective levels (hedonic evaluation). Because an important function of the sense of smell is its involvement in eating, from food selection to appreciation and recognition, a potential link between odor perception and food neophobia was also investigated. To these ends, 10 children between 6 and 13 years old diagnosed with ASD and 10 NT control children were tested. To compare performance, 16 stimuli were used and food neophobia was assessed by the parents on a short food neophobia scale. Results revealed that (i) significant hedonic discrimination between attractive and aversive odors was observed in NT (p = 0.005; d = 2.378) and ASD children (p = 0.042; d = 0.941), and (ii) hedonic discrimination level was negatively correlated with food neophobia scores in ASD (p = 0.007) but not NT children. In conclusion, this study offers new insights into odor perception in ASD children, highlighting a relationship between odor hedonic reactivity and eating behavior. This opens up new perspectives on both (i) the role of olfaction in the construction of eating behavior in ASD children, and (ii) the measurement and meaning of food neophobia in this population.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus