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Biomarkers of cancer angioprevention for clinical studies.

Albini A, Bertolini F, Bassani B, Bruno A, Gallo C, Caraffi SG, Maramotti S, Noonan DM - Ecancermedicalscience (2015)

Bottom Line: Prevention approaches range from avoiding tobacco exposure to dietary strategies to active pharmacological approaches in higher risk groups.Angioprevention i.e. preventing cancer angiogenesis is a key concept that we introduced; yet one of the major current challenges for anti-angiogenesis in therapy and prevention is finding the right biomarkers.Here we discuss the importance of angioprevention and the potential use of VEGF, PlGF, CD31, Ang and Tie, circulating vascular cell precursors, and microRNA as potential biomarkers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Translational Oncology, Department of Research and Statistics, IRCCS Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, Reggio Emilia 42123, Italy ; These authors share equal contribution.

ABSTRACT
With the great advances made in the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases over the last century, chronic degenerative diseases-cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and cancer-represent the major causes of death in the developed world. Although massive efforts and investments have been made in cancer therapy, the progress made towards reducing mortality has been more successful for cardiovascular disease than for tumours. This can be attributable largely to an active prevention approach implemented for cardiovascular disease. Cardiologists treat their patients before the overt disease becomes life threatening, performing early interventions in phenotypically healthy patients, by using several markers that predict risk. If the concept of prevention could be applied to cancer in a more extensive way, a significant number of tumours could be avoided through preventive measures. Prevention approaches range from avoiding tobacco exposure to dietary strategies to active pharmacological approaches in higher risk groups. Host targets rather than the tumour cells themselves are attractive for chemoprevention, in particular endothelial and immune cells. Angioprevention i.e. preventing cancer angiogenesis is a key concept that we introduced; yet one of the major current challenges for anti-angiogenesis in therapy and prevention is finding the right biomarkers. Here we discuss the importance of angioprevention and the potential use of VEGF, PlGF, CD31, Ang and Tie, circulating vascular cell precursors, and microRNA as potential biomarkers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The three main categories of angiogenesis-related biomarkers that are currently under clinical validation. Predictive/prognostic biomarkers include a) blood levels of angiogenesis-related growth factors and receptors (e.g. VEGF and VEGFR, FGF and FGFR, Angiopoietins and related receptors); b) germline SNPs evaluation of the molecules mentioned above; c) circulating cells (CECs and CEPs). Currently investigated dynamic biomarkers, potentially useful to ascertain whether a given therapy is actually offering a clinical benefit to the patient, include blood pressure, evidence of vessel pruning (or, vice-versa, normalisation), perfusion-related parameters acquired by MRI. Finally, an emerging new class of potentially useful biomarkers includes those suggesting an initial escape from the ongoing therapy, and thus the need to change therapy. CEC/CEPs and immunohistochemistry (IHC) evaluation of the generation of dysplastic ‘supervessels’ are currently investigated pre-clinically and clinically with this goal in mind. All these biomarkers are covered in references [4, 37–39, 50].
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figure2: The three main categories of angiogenesis-related biomarkers that are currently under clinical validation. Predictive/prognostic biomarkers include a) blood levels of angiogenesis-related growth factors and receptors (e.g. VEGF and VEGFR, FGF and FGFR, Angiopoietins and related receptors); b) germline SNPs evaluation of the molecules mentioned above; c) circulating cells (CECs and CEPs). Currently investigated dynamic biomarkers, potentially useful to ascertain whether a given therapy is actually offering a clinical benefit to the patient, include blood pressure, evidence of vessel pruning (or, vice-versa, normalisation), perfusion-related parameters acquired by MRI. Finally, an emerging new class of potentially useful biomarkers includes those suggesting an initial escape from the ongoing therapy, and thus the need to change therapy. CEC/CEPs and immunohistochemistry (IHC) evaluation of the generation of dysplastic ‘supervessels’ are currently investigated pre-clinically and clinically with this goal in mind. All these biomarkers are covered in references [4, 37–39, 50].

Mentions: Biomarkers for anti-angiogenic therapy are needed in order to select patients likely to respond and avoid those likely to do worse, as well as to optimise therapy dose/schedule, and to monitor therapy and determine when escape is likely to occur. Numerous trials have included many different kinds of biomarkers, from proteins to physiological ones (for example hypertension), however there is no consensus for angiogenesis biomarkers (Figure 2). Blood levels of VEGF have been investigated in numerous studies, along with related molecules such as placenta growth factor (PlGF). Several papers have found a lack of correlation between VEGF levels and response to anti-angiogenic therapy, while others noted an increase in VEGF and PlGF levels with therapy [4, 38, 39]. Although circulating endothelial cells (CECs) seem to be a promising marker, development has been hindered by the overlap in antigens between CECs, platelets, and some haematopoietic cells. Identification of other cells, such as circulating endothelial progenitors (CEPs), is also controversial [38].


Biomarkers of cancer angioprevention for clinical studies.

Albini A, Bertolini F, Bassani B, Bruno A, Gallo C, Caraffi SG, Maramotti S, Noonan DM - Ecancermedicalscience (2015)

The three main categories of angiogenesis-related biomarkers that are currently under clinical validation. Predictive/prognostic biomarkers include a) blood levels of angiogenesis-related growth factors and receptors (e.g. VEGF and VEGFR, FGF and FGFR, Angiopoietins and related receptors); b) germline SNPs evaluation of the molecules mentioned above; c) circulating cells (CECs and CEPs). Currently investigated dynamic biomarkers, potentially useful to ascertain whether a given therapy is actually offering a clinical benefit to the patient, include blood pressure, evidence of vessel pruning (or, vice-versa, normalisation), perfusion-related parameters acquired by MRI. Finally, an emerging new class of potentially useful biomarkers includes those suggesting an initial escape from the ongoing therapy, and thus the need to change therapy. CEC/CEPs and immunohistochemistry (IHC) evaluation of the generation of dysplastic ‘supervessels’ are currently investigated pre-clinically and clinically with this goal in mind. All these biomarkers are covered in references [4, 37–39, 50].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664506&req=5

figure2: The three main categories of angiogenesis-related biomarkers that are currently under clinical validation. Predictive/prognostic biomarkers include a) blood levels of angiogenesis-related growth factors and receptors (e.g. VEGF and VEGFR, FGF and FGFR, Angiopoietins and related receptors); b) germline SNPs evaluation of the molecules mentioned above; c) circulating cells (CECs and CEPs). Currently investigated dynamic biomarkers, potentially useful to ascertain whether a given therapy is actually offering a clinical benefit to the patient, include blood pressure, evidence of vessel pruning (or, vice-versa, normalisation), perfusion-related parameters acquired by MRI. Finally, an emerging new class of potentially useful biomarkers includes those suggesting an initial escape from the ongoing therapy, and thus the need to change therapy. CEC/CEPs and immunohistochemistry (IHC) evaluation of the generation of dysplastic ‘supervessels’ are currently investigated pre-clinically and clinically with this goal in mind. All these biomarkers are covered in references [4, 37–39, 50].
Mentions: Biomarkers for anti-angiogenic therapy are needed in order to select patients likely to respond and avoid those likely to do worse, as well as to optimise therapy dose/schedule, and to monitor therapy and determine when escape is likely to occur. Numerous trials have included many different kinds of biomarkers, from proteins to physiological ones (for example hypertension), however there is no consensus for angiogenesis biomarkers (Figure 2). Blood levels of VEGF have been investigated in numerous studies, along with related molecules such as placenta growth factor (PlGF). Several papers have found a lack of correlation between VEGF levels and response to anti-angiogenic therapy, while others noted an increase in VEGF and PlGF levels with therapy [4, 38, 39]. Although circulating endothelial cells (CECs) seem to be a promising marker, development has been hindered by the overlap in antigens between CECs, platelets, and some haematopoietic cells. Identification of other cells, such as circulating endothelial progenitors (CEPs), is also controversial [38].

Bottom Line: Prevention approaches range from avoiding tobacco exposure to dietary strategies to active pharmacological approaches in higher risk groups.Angioprevention i.e. preventing cancer angiogenesis is a key concept that we introduced; yet one of the major current challenges for anti-angiogenesis in therapy and prevention is finding the right biomarkers.Here we discuss the importance of angioprevention and the potential use of VEGF, PlGF, CD31, Ang and Tie, circulating vascular cell precursors, and microRNA as potential biomarkers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Translational Oncology, Department of Research and Statistics, IRCCS Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, Reggio Emilia 42123, Italy ; These authors share equal contribution.

ABSTRACT
With the great advances made in the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases over the last century, chronic degenerative diseases-cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and cancer-represent the major causes of death in the developed world. Although massive efforts and investments have been made in cancer therapy, the progress made towards reducing mortality has been more successful for cardiovascular disease than for tumours. This can be attributable largely to an active prevention approach implemented for cardiovascular disease. Cardiologists treat their patients before the overt disease becomes life threatening, performing early interventions in phenotypically healthy patients, by using several markers that predict risk. If the concept of prevention could be applied to cancer in a more extensive way, a significant number of tumours could be avoided through preventive measures. Prevention approaches range from avoiding tobacco exposure to dietary strategies to active pharmacological approaches in higher risk groups. Host targets rather than the tumour cells themselves are attractive for chemoprevention, in particular endothelial and immune cells. Angioprevention i.e. preventing cancer angiogenesis is a key concept that we introduced; yet one of the major current challenges for anti-angiogenesis in therapy and prevention is finding the right biomarkers. Here we discuss the importance of angioprevention and the potential use of VEGF, PlGF, CD31, Ang and Tie, circulating vascular cell precursors, and microRNA as potential biomarkers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus