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The antiplasmodial and spleen protective role of crude Indigofera oblongifolia leaf extract traditionally used in the treatment of malaria in Saudi Arabia.

Dkhil MA, Lubbad MY, Al-Shaebi EM, Delic D, Al-Quraishy S - Drug Des Devel Ther (2015)

Bottom Line: The suppressive effect produced by the 100 mg/kg dose on parasitemia was highly significant compared to the infected nontreated group.Among the differentially up- and downregulated genes under the effect of IOLE, we quantified the expression of Ccl8, Saa3, Cd209a, and Cd209b mRNAs.Based on our results, I. oblongifolia exhibits antimalarial activity and could protect the spleen from P. chabaudi-induced injury.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia ; Department of Zoology and Entomology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Helwan, Egypt.

ABSTRACT
Malaria is one of the most serious natural hazards faced by human society. Although plant leaves of Indigofera oblongifolia have been used for the treatment of malaria in Saudi Arabian society, there is no laboratory-based evidence for the effectiveness and safety of the plant. This study therefore was designed to investigate the antimalarial and spleen protective activity of I. oblongifolia leaf extract (IOLE) in mice. Three doses (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg) of IOLE were used to treat mice infected with Plasmodium chabaudi-parasitized erythrocytes. The suppressive effect produced by the 100 mg/kg dose on parasitemia was highly significant compared to the infected nontreated group. This dose was also able to repair the change in the thickness of the mice spleen and significantly lower the number of apoptotic cells in the spleen. Moreover, I. oblongifolia also altered gene expression in the infected spleen. On day 7 postinfection, the mRNA expression of six genes - with immune response functions - was upregulated by more than twofold, while that of 24 other genes was downregulated. Among the differentially up- and downregulated genes under the effect of IOLE, we quantified the expression of Ccl8, Saa3, Cd209a, and Cd209b mRNAs. The expression data, determined by microarrays, were largely consistent with the expression analyses we performed with several arbitrarily selected genes using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Based on our results, I. oblongifolia exhibits antimalarial activity and could protect the spleen from P. chabaudi-induced injury.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Changes in capsule thickness of spleens of uninfected, Plasmodiun chabaudi-infected, and infected I. oblongifolia treated mice on day 7 pi.Notes: Values are means ± SD. aSignificant against noninfected group at P≤0.05. bSignificant against infected (− IOLE) group at P≤0.05.Abbreviations: pi, postinfection; SD, standard deviation; IOLE, I. oblongifolia leaf extract.
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f3-dddt-9-6235: Changes in capsule thickness of spleens of uninfected, Plasmodiun chabaudi-infected, and infected I. oblongifolia treated mice on day 7 pi.Notes: Values are means ± SD. aSignificant against noninfected group at P≤0.05. bSignificant against infected (− IOLE) group at P≤0.05.Abbreviations: pi, postinfection; SD, standard deviation; IOLE, I. oblongifolia leaf extract.

Mentions: Splenomegaly in mice was shown at day 7 pi with P. chabaudi (Figure 1). This was indicated by the determination of the splenic index (ratio of spleen weight to the mice weight) (Figure 1). IOLE was able to reduce the increased spleen index (Figure 1). Also, the capsule of the mice spleen infected with P. chabaudi-infected erythrocytes decreased in thickness compared to that of the control spleen (Figure 2). Treatment of the infected mice with 100 mg IOLE/kg was able to reverse this change in spleen thickness (Figure 3), while the other two doses (200 and 300 mg IOLE/kg) did not show significant improvement in the spleen thickness.


The antiplasmodial and spleen protective role of crude Indigofera oblongifolia leaf extract traditionally used in the treatment of malaria in Saudi Arabia.

Dkhil MA, Lubbad MY, Al-Shaebi EM, Delic D, Al-Quraishy S - Drug Des Devel Ther (2015)

Changes in capsule thickness of spleens of uninfected, Plasmodiun chabaudi-infected, and infected I. oblongifolia treated mice on day 7 pi.Notes: Values are means ± SD. aSignificant against noninfected group at P≤0.05. bSignificant against infected (− IOLE) group at P≤0.05.Abbreviations: pi, postinfection; SD, standard deviation; IOLE, I. oblongifolia leaf extract.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664501&req=5

f3-dddt-9-6235: Changes in capsule thickness of spleens of uninfected, Plasmodiun chabaudi-infected, and infected I. oblongifolia treated mice on day 7 pi.Notes: Values are means ± SD. aSignificant against noninfected group at P≤0.05. bSignificant against infected (− IOLE) group at P≤0.05.Abbreviations: pi, postinfection; SD, standard deviation; IOLE, I. oblongifolia leaf extract.
Mentions: Splenomegaly in mice was shown at day 7 pi with P. chabaudi (Figure 1). This was indicated by the determination of the splenic index (ratio of spleen weight to the mice weight) (Figure 1). IOLE was able to reduce the increased spleen index (Figure 1). Also, the capsule of the mice spleen infected with P. chabaudi-infected erythrocytes decreased in thickness compared to that of the control spleen (Figure 2). Treatment of the infected mice with 100 mg IOLE/kg was able to reverse this change in spleen thickness (Figure 3), while the other two doses (200 and 300 mg IOLE/kg) did not show significant improvement in the spleen thickness.

Bottom Line: The suppressive effect produced by the 100 mg/kg dose on parasitemia was highly significant compared to the infected nontreated group.Among the differentially up- and downregulated genes under the effect of IOLE, we quantified the expression of Ccl8, Saa3, Cd209a, and Cd209b mRNAs.Based on our results, I. oblongifolia exhibits antimalarial activity and could protect the spleen from P. chabaudi-induced injury.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia ; Department of Zoology and Entomology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Helwan, Egypt.

ABSTRACT
Malaria is one of the most serious natural hazards faced by human society. Although plant leaves of Indigofera oblongifolia have been used for the treatment of malaria in Saudi Arabian society, there is no laboratory-based evidence for the effectiveness and safety of the plant. This study therefore was designed to investigate the antimalarial and spleen protective activity of I. oblongifolia leaf extract (IOLE) in mice. Three doses (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg) of IOLE were used to treat mice infected with Plasmodium chabaudi-parasitized erythrocytes. The suppressive effect produced by the 100 mg/kg dose on parasitemia was highly significant compared to the infected nontreated group. This dose was also able to repair the change in the thickness of the mice spleen and significantly lower the number of apoptotic cells in the spleen. Moreover, I. oblongifolia also altered gene expression in the infected spleen. On day 7 postinfection, the mRNA expression of six genes - with immune response functions - was upregulated by more than twofold, while that of 24 other genes was downregulated. Among the differentially up- and downregulated genes under the effect of IOLE, we quantified the expression of Ccl8, Saa3, Cd209a, and Cd209b mRNAs. The expression data, determined by microarrays, were largely consistent with the expression analyses we performed with several arbitrarily selected genes using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Based on our results, I. oblongifolia exhibits antimalarial activity and could protect the spleen from P. chabaudi-induced injury.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus