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Pathology and Epidemiology of Ceruminous Gland Tumors among Endangered Santa Catalina Island Foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) in the Channel Islands, USA.

Vickers TW, Clifford DL, Garcelon DK, King JL, Duncan CL, Gaffney PM, Boyce WM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: On SCA, otitis externa secondary to ear mite infection was highly correlated with ceruminous gland hyperplasia (CGH), and tumors were significantly associated with the severity of CGH, ceruminous gland dysplasia, and age group (older foxes).We propose a conceptual model for the formation of ceruminous gland tumors in foxes on SCA that is based on persistent, ubiquitous infection with ear mites, and an innate, over exuberant inflammatory and hyperplastic response of SCA foxes to these mites.Foxes on SCA are now opportunistically treated with acaricides in an attempt to reduce mite infections and the morbidity and mortality associated with this highly prevalent tumor.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Wildlife Studies, Arcata, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
In this study, we examined the prevalence, pathology, and epidemiology of tumors in free-ranging island foxes occurring on three islands in the California Channel Islands, USA. We found a remarkably high prevalence of ceruminous gland tumors in endangered foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) occurring on Santa Catalina Island (SCA)--48.9% of the dead foxes examined from 2001-2008 had tumors in their ears, and tumors were found in 52.2% of randomly-selected mature (≥ 4 years) foxes captured in 2007-2008, representing one of the highest prevalences of tumors ever documented in a wildlife population. In contrast, no tumors were detected in foxes from San Nicolas Island or San Clemente Island, although ear mites (Otodectes cynotis), a predisposing factor for ceruminous gland tumors in dogs and cats, were highly prevalent on all three islands. On SCA, otitis externa secondary to ear mite infection was highly correlated with ceruminous gland hyperplasia (CGH), and tumors were significantly associated with the severity of CGH, ceruminous gland dysplasia, and age group (older foxes). We propose a conceptual model for the formation of ceruminous gland tumors in foxes on SCA that is based on persistent, ubiquitous infection with ear mites, and an innate, over exuberant inflammatory and hyperplastic response of SCA foxes to these mites. Foxes on SCA are now opportunistically treated with acaricides in an attempt to reduce mite infections and the morbidity and mortality associated with this highly prevalent tumor.

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The frequency distribution of otitis severity scores in biopsy-sampled live adult foxes from SCA, SCI, and SNI.Number above bar equals sample size for each subgroup.
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pone.0143211.g009: The frequency distribution of otitis severity scores in biopsy-sampled live adult foxes from SCA, SCI, and SNI.Number above bar equals sample size for each subgroup.

Mentions: Mature live SCA foxes with tumors were 15 times more likely to have moderate to severe ceruminous gland hyperplasia (X2 = 13.35, p < 0.001, 95% CI OR 3.0–70.6), and 3.6 times more likely to have ceruminous gland dysplasia (X2 = 5.72, p = 0.017, 95% CI OR 1.4–9.5), than similarly aged SCA foxes without tumors. Though mature SCA foxes with tumors were not more likely to have moderate to severe otitis (X2 = 2.49, p = 0.114) than those without tumors, otitis was more severe in live SCA foxes (KWANOVA X2 (3 df) = 39.15, p <0.001) than in SCI or SNI foxes (Fig 9). A strong positive correlation between the severity of otitis and the severity of ceruminous gland hyperplasia (rho = 0.772, p<0.001) existed for all three islands. Ceruminous gland hyperplasia scores also differed among islands (KWANOVA X2 (3 df) = 50.12, p < 0.001), with CGH being more prevalent and severe in SCA foxes than in SCI or SNI foxes (Fig 10). SCA foxes with tumors had significantly higher CGH scores (median = 3.0) than SCA foxes without tumors (median = 2.0), and foxes from SCI (median = 1.0) and SNI (median = 2.0). SCA foxes with tumors were 20 times more likely to have moderate to severe CGH (40/42; 95.2%) compared to foxes from all islands without tumors (54/108; 50%; chisq = 24.5, p < 0.001, 95% CI OR 4.6–86.9). Only 2 of 40 tumor cases had no or mild CGH.


Pathology and Epidemiology of Ceruminous Gland Tumors among Endangered Santa Catalina Island Foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) in the Channel Islands, USA.

Vickers TW, Clifford DL, Garcelon DK, King JL, Duncan CL, Gaffney PM, Boyce WM - PLoS ONE (2015)

The frequency distribution of otitis severity scores in biopsy-sampled live adult foxes from SCA, SCI, and SNI.Number above bar equals sample size for each subgroup.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664485&req=5

pone.0143211.g009: The frequency distribution of otitis severity scores in biopsy-sampled live adult foxes from SCA, SCI, and SNI.Number above bar equals sample size for each subgroup.
Mentions: Mature live SCA foxes with tumors were 15 times more likely to have moderate to severe ceruminous gland hyperplasia (X2 = 13.35, p < 0.001, 95% CI OR 3.0–70.6), and 3.6 times more likely to have ceruminous gland dysplasia (X2 = 5.72, p = 0.017, 95% CI OR 1.4–9.5), than similarly aged SCA foxes without tumors. Though mature SCA foxes with tumors were not more likely to have moderate to severe otitis (X2 = 2.49, p = 0.114) than those without tumors, otitis was more severe in live SCA foxes (KWANOVA X2 (3 df) = 39.15, p <0.001) than in SCI or SNI foxes (Fig 9). A strong positive correlation between the severity of otitis and the severity of ceruminous gland hyperplasia (rho = 0.772, p<0.001) existed for all three islands. Ceruminous gland hyperplasia scores also differed among islands (KWANOVA X2 (3 df) = 50.12, p < 0.001), with CGH being more prevalent and severe in SCA foxes than in SCI or SNI foxes (Fig 10). SCA foxes with tumors had significantly higher CGH scores (median = 3.0) than SCA foxes without tumors (median = 2.0), and foxes from SCI (median = 1.0) and SNI (median = 2.0). SCA foxes with tumors were 20 times more likely to have moderate to severe CGH (40/42; 95.2%) compared to foxes from all islands without tumors (54/108; 50%; chisq = 24.5, p < 0.001, 95% CI OR 4.6–86.9). Only 2 of 40 tumor cases had no or mild CGH.

Bottom Line: On SCA, otitis externa secondary to ear mite infection was highly correlated with ceruminous gland hyperplasia (CGH), and tumors were significantly associated with the severity of CGH, ceruminous gland dysplasia, and age group (older foxes).We propose a conceptual model for the formation of ceruminous gland tumors in foxes on SCA that is based on persistent, ubiquitous infection with ear mites, and an innate, over exuberant inflammatory and hyperplastic response of SCA foxes to these mites.Foxes on SCA are now opportunistically treated with acaricides in an attempt to reduce mite infections and the morbidity and mortality associated with this highly prevalent tumor.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Wildlife Studies, Arcata, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
In this study, we examined the prevalence, pathology, and epidemiology of tumors in free-ranging island foxes occurring on three islands in the California Channel Islands, USA. We found a remarkably high prevalence of ceruminous gland tumors in endangered foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) occurring on Santa Catalina Island (SCA)--48.9% of the dead foxes examined from 2001-2008 had tumors in their ears, and tumors were found in 52.2% of randomly-selected mature (≥ 4 years) foxes captured in 2007-2008, representing one of the highest prevalences of tumors ever documented in a wildlife population. In contrast, no tumors were detected in foxes from San Nicolas Island or San Clemente Island, although ear mites (Otodectes cynotis), a predisposing factor for ceruminous gland tumors in dogs and cats, were highly prevalent on all three islands. On SCA, otitis externa secondary to ear mite infection was highly correlated with ceruminous gland hyperplasia (CGH), and tumors were significantly associated with the severity of CGH, ceruminous gland dysplasia, and age group (older foxes). We propose a conceptual model for the formation of ceruminous gland tumors in foxes on SCA that is based on persistent, ubiquitous infection with ear mites, and an innate, over exuberant inflammatory and hyperplastic response of SCA foxes to these mites. Foxes on SCA are now opportunistically treated with acaricides in an attempt to reduce mite infections and the morbidity and mortality associated with this highly prevalent tumor.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus