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What the Erythrocytic Nuclear Alteration Frequencies Could Tell Us about Genotoxicity and Macrophage Iron Storage?

Gomes JM, Ribeiro HJ, Procópio MS, Alvarenga BM, Castro AC, Dutra WO, da Silva JB, Corrêa Junior JD - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: However, poor data has been found in literature concerning their genesis, differential occurrence and their life span.Moreover, nuclear alterations frequencies (vacuolated, condensed and blebbed) showed to be associated to cadmium exposure whereas others (lobed and bud) were associated to depuration period.Decrease on nuclear alterations frequencies was also associated with hemosiderin increase inside spleen and head kidney macrophages mainly during depurative processes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Erythrocytic nuclear alterations have been considered as an indicative of organism's exposure to genotoxic agents. Due to their close relationship among their frequencies and DNA damages, they are considered excellent markers of exposure in eukaryotes. However, poor data has been found in literature concerning their genesis, differential occurrence and their life span. In this study, we use markers of cell viability; genotoxicity and cellular turn over in order to shed light to these events. Tilapia and their blood were exposed to cadmium in acute exposure and in vitro assays. They were analyzed using flow cytometry for oxidative stress and membrane disruption, optical microscopy for erythrocytic nuclear alteration, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for cadmium content in aquaria water, blood and cytochemical and analytical electron microscopy techniques for the hemocateretic aspects. The results showed a close relationship among the total nuclear alterations and cadmium content in the total blood and melanomacrophage centres area, mismatching reactive oxygen species and membrane damages. Moreover, nuclear alterations frequencies (vacuolated, condensed and blebbed) showed to be associated to cadmium exposure whereas others (lobed and bud) were associated to depuration period. Decrease on nuclear alterations frequencies was also associated with hemosiderin increase inside spleen and head kidney macrophages mainly during depurative processes. These data disclosure in temporal fashion the main processes that drive the nuclear alterations frequencies and their relationship with some cellular and systemic biomarkers.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Spleen and head kidney MMCs.(A) Surface images obtained by secondary electrons from spleen and (D) head kidney tissue sections. The corresponding backscattered electron images of electron-dense granules from the red dots were identified in the respective images (B, E). The spectra obtained by X-ray microanalysis of the granule in spleen (C) and head kidney (F), showing characteristics peaks of C, O, P, S, Ca and Fe and C, O, P, S and Ca, respectively.
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pone.0143029.g010: Spleen and head kidney MMCs.(A) Surface images obtained by secondary electrons from spleen and (D) head kidney tissue sections. The corresponding backscattered electron images of electron-dense granules from the red dots were identified in the respective images (B, E). The spectra obtained by X-ray microanalysis of the granule in spleen (C) and head kidney (F), showing characteristics peaks of C, O, P, S, Ca and Fe and C, O, P, S and Ca, respectively.

Mentions: Scanning electron microscopy displaying the surface images of tissue sections acquired by secondary electrons in spleen (Fig 10A) and head kidney (Fig 10D). Electron-dense micro regions present inside cell tissue were determined through images with the backscattered electrons for spleens and head kidney (Fig 10B and 10E) respectively from animals exposed to cadmium.


What the Erythrocytic Nuclear Alteration Frequencies Could Tell Us about Genotoxicity and Macrophage Iron Storage?

Gomes JM, Ribeiro HJ, Procópio MS, Alvarenga BM, Castro AC, Dutra WO, da Silva JB, Corrêa Junior JD - PLoS ONE (2015)

Spleen and head kidney MMCs.(A) Surface images obtained by secondary electrons from spleen and (D) head kidney tissue sections. The corresponding backscattered electron images of electron-dense granules from the red dots were identified in the respective images (B, E). The spectra obtained by X-ray microanalysis of the granule in spleen (C) and head kidney (F), showing characteristics peaks of C, O, P, S, Ca and Fe and C, O, P, S and Ca, respectively.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664483&req=5

pone.0143029.g010: Spleen and head kidney MMCs.(A) Surface images obtained by secondary electrons from spleen and (D) head kidney tissue sections. The corresponding backscattered electron images of electron-dense granules from the red dots were identified in the respective images (B, E). The spectra obtained by X-ray microanalysis of the granule in spleen (C) and head kidney (F), showing characteristics peaks of C, O, P, S, Ca and Fe and C, O, P, S and Ca, respectively.
Mentions: Scanning electron microscopy displaying the surface images of tissue sections acquired by secondary electrons in spleen (Fig 10A) and head kidney (Fig 10D). Electron-dense micro regions present inside cell tissue were determined through images with the backscattered electrons for spleens and head kidney (Fig 10B and 10E) respectively from animals exposed to cadmium.

Bottom Line: However, poor data has been found in literature concerning their genesis, differential occurrence and their life span.Moreover, nuclear alterations frequencies (vacuolated, condensed and blebbed) showed to be associated to cadmium exposure whereas others (lobed and bud) were associated to depuration period.Decrease on nuclear alterations frequencies was also associated with hemosiderin increase inside spleen and head kidney macrophages mainly during depurative processes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Erythrocytic nuclear alterations have been considered as an indicative of organism's exposure to genotoxic agents. Due to their close relationship among their frequencies and DNA damages, they are considered excellent markers of exposure in eukaryotes. However, poor data has been found in literature concerning their genesis, differential occurrence and their life span. In this study, we use markers of cell viability; genotoxicity and cellular turn over in order to shed light to these events. Tilapia and their blood were exposed to cadmium in acute exposure and in vitro assays. They were analyzed using flow cytometry for oxidative stress and membrane disruption, optical microscopy for erythrocytic nuclear alteration, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for cadmium content in aquaria water, blood and cytochemical and analytical electron microscopy techniques for the hemocateretic aspects. The results showed a close relationship among the total nuclear alterations and cadmium content in the total blood and melanomacrophage centres area, mismatching reactive oxygen species and membrane damages. Moreover, nuclear alterations frequencies (vacuolated, condensed and blebbed) showed to be associated to cadmium exposure whereas others (lobed and bud) were associated to depuration period. Decrease on nuclear alterations frequencies was also associated with hemosiderin increase inside spleen and head kidney macrophages mainly during depurative processes. These data disclosure in temporal fashion the main processes that drive the nuclear alterations frequencies and their relationship with some cellular and systemic biomarkers.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus