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Productivity loss and resource utilization, and associated indirect and direct costs in individuals providing care for adults with schizophrenia in the EU5.

Gupta S, Isherwood G, Jones K, Van Impe K - Clinicoecon Outcomes Res (2015)

Bottom Line: Outcome measures included health care utilization, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire-based scores, and associated direct and indirect costs (estimated from the literature).Schizophrenia caregivers reported greater activity impairment, resource utilization, and costs than noncaregivers and other caregivers.Better support systems for schizophrenia caregivers may help reduce the burden on the health care system and caregivers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Kantar Health, Princeton, NJ, USA.

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to understand the impact of providing care for adults with schizophrenia on productivity, resource utilization, and costs in the EU5 (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and UK).

Methods: Data from the 2010, 2011, and 2013 EU5 National Health and Wellness Survey, an online questionnaire of a nationwide sample of adults, were analyzed. Schizophrenia caregivers (n=398) were matched to noncaregivers (n=158,989) and other caregivers (n=14,341) via propensity scores. Outcome measures included health care utilization, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire-based scores, and associated direct and indirect costs (estimated from the literature). Significant differences between schizophrenia caregivers vs noncaregivers and other caregivers (eg, cancer and Alzheimer's disease) were examined.

Results: After matching, schizophrenia caregivers reported greater activity impairment (38.4% vs 26.1%), provider visits (8.0 vs 5.7), emergency room visits (0.9 vs 0.2), hospitalizations (0.8 vs 0.1), and direct costs (€2,258 vs €617) than noncaregivers, all P<0.001. Employed schizophrenia caregivers reported greater absenteeism, presenteeism, overall work impairment (35.0% vs 20.7%), and indirect costs (€6,667 vs €3,795) than noncaregivers, all P<0.001. Schizophrenia caregivers (vs other caregivers) reported greater activity impairment (38.4% vs 32.3%) and provider visits (8.0 vs 6.6), P<0.05. A greater proportion of schizophrenia caregivers (vs other caregivers) reported at least one emergency room visit (26.1% vs 20.2%) and hospitalization (20.4% vs 14.3%), P<0.05. Employed schizophrenia caregivers incurred greater indirect costs than other caregivers (€6,667 vs €5,104).

Discussion: Schizophrenia caregivers reported greater activity impairment, resource utilization, and costs than noncaregivers and other caregivers. Better support systems for schizophrenia caregivers may help reduce the burden on the health care system and caregivers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Direct costs by caregiver status post-propensity matching.Notes: *P-values reflect significant differences compared with schizophrenia caregiver, total direct costs are the combination of physician visit, ER visit, and hospitalization costs. Means with 95% confidence intervals are presented. The matched noncaregiver and other caregiver groups were matched on age, sex, marital status, education, household income, employment status, BMI, smoking status, alcohol consumption, exercise behaviors, and the CCI.Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; CCI, Charlson comorbidity index; ER, emergency room.
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f5-ceor-7-593: Direct costs by caregiver status post-propensity matching.Notes: *P-values reflect significant differences compared with schizophrenia caregiver, total direct costs are the combination of physician visit, ER visit, and hospitalization costs. Means with 95% confidence intervals are presented. The matched noncaregiver and other caregiver groups were matched on age, sex, marital status, education, household income, employment status, BMI, smoking status, alcohol consumption, exercise behaviors, and the CCI.Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; CCI, Charlson comorbidity index; ER, emergency room.

Mentions: Average estimated medical care costs, at €2,258 per schizophrenia caregiver per year, were significantly higher than that of the noncaregiver average of €617. All resource utilization cost estimates were significantly greater for schizophrenia caregivers than noncaregivers (all P<0.001). The average estimated medical care costs, at €2,258 per schizophrenia caregiver per year, were marginally higher than those of the other caregivers average of €1,440 (P=0.084; Figure 5).


Productivity loss and resource utilization, and associated indirect and direct costs in individuals providing care for adults with schizophrenia in the EU5.

Gupta S, Isherwood G, Jones K, Van Impe K - Clinicoecon Outcomes Res (2015)

Direct costs by caregiver status post-propensity matching.Notes: *P-values reflect significant differences compared with schizophrenia caregiver, total direct costs are the combination of physician visit, ER visit, and hospitalization costs. Means with 95% confidence intervals are presented. The matched noncaregiver and other caregiver groups were matched on age, sex, marital status, education, household income, employment status, BMI, smoking status, alcohol consumption, exercise behaviors, and the CCI.Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; CCI, Charlson comorbidity index; ER, emergency room.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664428&req=5

f5-ceor-7-593: Direct costs by caregiver status post-propensity matching.Notes: *P-values reflect significant differences compared with schizophrenia caregiver, total direct costs are the combination of physician visit, ER visit, and hospitalization costs. Means with 95% confidence intervals are presented. The matched noncaregiver and other caregiver groups were matched on age, sex, marital status, education, household income, employment status, BMI, smoking status, alcohol consumption, exercise behaviors, and the CCI.Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; CCI, Charlson comorbidity index; ER, emergency room.
Mentions: Average estimated medical care costs, at €2,258 per schizophrenia caregiver per year, were significantly higher than that of the noncaregiver average of €617. All resource utilization cost estimates were significantly greater for schizophrenia caregivers than noncaregivers (all P<0.001). The average estimated medical care costs, at €2,258 per schizophrenia caregiver per year, were marginally higher than those of the other caregivers average of €1,440 (P=0.084; Figure 5).

Bottom Line: Outcome measures included health care utilization, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire-based scores, and associated direct and indirect costs (estimated from the literature).Schizophrenia caregivers reported greater activity impairment, resource utilization, and costs than noncaregivers and other caregivers.Better support systems for schizophrenia caregivers may help reduce the burden on the health care system and caregivers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Kantar Health, Princeton, NJ, USA.

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to understand the impact of providing care for adults with schizophrenia on productivity, resource utilization, and costs in the EU5 (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and UK).

Methods: Data from the 2010, 2011, and 2013 EU5 National Health and Wellness Survey, an online questionnaire of a nationwide sample of adults, were analyzed. Schizophrenia caregivers (n=398) were matched to noncaregivers (n=158,989) and other caregivers (n=14,341) via propensity scores. Outcome measures included health care utilization, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire-based scores, and associated direct and indirect costs (estimated from the literature). Significant differences between schizophrenia caregivers vs noncaregivers and other caregivers (eg, cancer and Alzheimer's disease) were examined.

Results: After matching, schizophrenia caregivers reported greater activity impairment (38.4% vs 26.1%), provider visits (8.0 vs 5.7), emergency room visits (0.9 vs 0.2), hospitalizations (0.8 vs 0.1), and direct costs (€2,258 vs €617) than noncaregivers, all P<0.001. Employed schizophrenia caregivers reported greater absenteeism, presenteeism, overall work impairment (35.0% vs 20.7%), and indirect costs (€6,667 vs €3,795) than noncaregivers, all P<0.001. Schizophrenia caregivers (vs other caregivers) reported greater activity impairment (38.4% vs 32.3%) and provider visits (8.0 vs 6.6), P<0.05. A greater proportion of schizophrenia caregivers (vs other caregivers) reported at least one emergency room visit (26.1% vs 20.2%) and hospitalization (20.4% vs 14.3%), P<0.05. Employed schizophrenia caregivers incurred greater indirect costs than other caregivers (€6,667 vs €5,104).

Discussion: Schizophrenia caregivers reported greater activity impairment, resource utilization, and costs than noncaregivers and other caregivers. Better support systems for schizophrenia caregivers may help reduce the burden on the health care system and caregivers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus