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Mechanisms of Resilience in Children of Mothers Who Self-Report with Depressive Symptoms in the First Postnatal Year.

Savage-McGlynn E, Redshaw M, Heron J, Stein A, Quigley MA, Evans J, Ramchandani P, Gray R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Maternal positive feelings about parenting and child non-verbal communication at 15 months increased the likelihood of later resilience.In this study, resilience was associated with two factors: the child's nonverbal communication at 15 months and by maternal positive feelings about parenting.Early intervention to support mother-child interaction and foster child development in women identified with postnatal depressive symptoms may benefit later child resilience.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Policy Research Unit in Maternal Health and Care, National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT

Background: Symptoms of maternal postnatal depression are associated with an increased risk of adverse effects on child development. However, some children exposed to postnatal depression have outcomes similar to unexposed children, and can be referred to as resilient. This study aimed to determine the mechanisms of resilience in children exposed to depressive symptoms postnatally.

Method: Data are from a prospective cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Self-report questionnaire data were collected during pregnancy and the child's first 2 years regarding maternal views of parenting and her perception of the child. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was completed postnatally at 8 months and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) at age 11 years. Exposed children who scored above the median score of non-exposed children were defined as resilient. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the development of resilience.

Results: From the core ALSPAC cohort, 1,009 children (6.9%) were exposed to maternal depression at 8 months postnatally. The SDQ total difficulties scores at 11 years of age indicated that 325 (32.2%) were resilient, 684 were non-resilient. Maternal positive feelings about parenting and child non-verbal communication at 15 months increased the likelihood of later resilience.

Conclusions: In this study, resilience was associated with two factors: the child's nonverbal communication at 15 months and by maternal positive feelings about parenting. Early intervention to support mother-child interaction and foster child development in women identified with postnatal depressive symptoms may benefit later child resilience.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

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Mentions: The optimal Exploratory Factor Analysis solution of the parenting and child communication variables revealed five latent factors: Maternal Engagement, Negative Child Perception, Positive Child Perception, Positive Views of Parenting, and Nonverbal Child Communication (see Fig 2). These variables were then tested in a five factor Confirmatory Factor Analysis model with Total Difficulties for the child as the outcome variable. Based on overall model fit and individual variable factor loadings according to parameters details above, the CFA model was evaluated. Items retained in the final CFA model are shown in Table 1. The model was over-identified with 600 df; Χ2 (600) = 816.44, p< 0.01. The statistics suggested good model fit: CFI = 0.98, TLI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.02. Fully standardized estimates indicate that three of the factors were not predictors of resilience: Maternal Engagement with appropriate child centred activities like singing and reading stories (β = -0.08, p = 0.20), Negative Child Perception (β = -0.08, p = 0.13), and Positive Perception of the child (β = 0.07, p = 0.26) reflected in both critical attributions of the baby. In contrast Positive Views of Parenting, with items reflecting a strong emotional attachment to and enjoyment of her baby in the role as a parent was a predictor of the outcome variable ‘resilience’ (β = 0.14, p<0.05), indicating that the more positive a mother is about being a mother, the greater likelihood her child was resilient to the exposure of symptoms of maternal postnatal depression and show less in terms of later behavioural problems. Further, Nonverbal Child Communication was also a predictor of resilience (β = 0.13, p<0.05), suggesting that the more the child communicates effectively in a non-verbal way, the more likely they were to attain normative behavioral development.


Mechanisms of Resilience in Children of Mothers Who Self-Report with Depressive Symptoms in the First Postnatal Year.

Savage-McGlynn E, Redshaw M, Heron J, Stein A, Quigley MA, Evans J, Ramchandani P, Gray R - PLoS ONE (2015)

Model diagram.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664420&req=5

pone.0142898.g002: Model diagram.
Mentions: The optimal Exploratory Factor Analysis solution of the parenting and child communication variables revealed five latent factors: Maternal Engagement, Negative Child Perception, Positive Child Perception, Positive Views of Parenting, and Nonverbal Child Communication (see Fig 2). These variables were then tested in a five factor Confirmatory Factor Analysis model with Total Difficulties for the child as the outcome variable. Based on overall model fit and individual variable factor loadings according to parameters details above, the CFA model was evaluated. Items retained in the final CFA model are shown in Table 1. The model was over-identified with 600 df; Χ2 (600) = 816.44, p< 0.01. The statistics suggested good model fit: CFI = 0.98, TLI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.02. Fully standardized estimates indicate that three of the factors were not predictors of resilience: Maternal Engagement with appropriate child centred activities like singing and reading stories (β = -0.08, p = 0.20), Negative Child Perception (β = -0.08, p = 0.13), and Positive Perception of the child (β = 0.07, p = 0.26) reflected in both critical attributions of the baby. In contrast Positive Views of Parenting, with items reflecting a strong emotional attachment to and enjoyment of her baby in the role as a parent was a predictor of the outcome variable ‘resilience’ (β = 0.14, p<0.05), indicating that the more positive a mother is about being a mother, the greater likelihood her child was resilient to the exposure of symptoms of maternal postnatal depression and show less in terms of later behavioural problems. Further, Nonverbal Child Communication was also a predictor of resilience (β = 0.13, p<0.05), suggesting that the more the child communicates effectively in a non-verbal way, the more likely they were to attain normative behavioral development.

Bottom Line: Maternal positive feelings about parenting and child non-verbal communication at 15 months increased the likelihood of later resilience.In this study, resilience was associated with two factors: the child's nonverbal communication at 15 months and by maternal positive feelings about parenting.Early intervention to support mother-child interaction and foster child development in women identified with postnatal depressive symptoms may benefit later child resilience.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Policy Research Unit in Maternal Health and Care, National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT

Background: Symptoms of maternal postnatal depression are associated with an increased risk of adverse effects on child development. However, some children exposed to postnatal depression have outcomes similar to unexposed children, and can be referred to as resilient. This study aimed to determine the mechanisms of resilience in children exposed to depressive symptoms postnatally.

Method: Data are from a prospective cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Self-report questionnaire data were collected during pregnancy and the child's first 2 years regarding maternal views of parenting and her perception of the child. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was completed postnatally at 8 months and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) at age 11 years. Exposed children who scored above the median score of non-exposed children were defined as resilient. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the development of resilience.

Results: From the core ALSPAC cohort, 1,009 children (6.9%) were exposed to maternal depression at 8 months postnatally. The SDQ total difficulties scores at 11 years of age indicated that 325 (32.2%) were resilient, 684 were non-resilient. Maternal positive feelings about parenting and child non-verbal communication at 15 months increased the likelihood of later resilience.

Conclusions: In this study, resilience was associated with two factors: the child's nonverbal communication at 15 months and by maternal positive feelings about parenting. Early intervention to support mother-child interaction and foster child development in women identified with postnatal depressive symptoms may benefit later child resilience.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus