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The Gondwana Breakup and the History of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans Unveils Two New Clades for Early Neobatrachian Diversification.

Frazão A, da Silva HR, Russo CA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Hence, we propose names for these clades that indicate this connection, i.e., Atlanticanura and Indianura.The Atlanticanura is composed of three major neobatrachian lineages: Heleophrynidae, Australobatrachia and Nobleobatrachia.On the other hand, the Indianura consists of two major lineages: Sooglossoidea and Ranoides.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The largest anuran diversity belongs to the Neobatrachia, which harbor more than five thousand extant species. Here, we propose a new hypothesis for the historical aspects of the neobatrachian evolution with a formal biogeographical analysis. We selected 12 genes for 144 neobatrachian genera and four archaeobatrachian outgroups and performed a phylogenetic analysis using a maximum likelihood algorithm with the rapid bootstrap test. We also estimated divergence times for major lineages using a relaxed uncorrelated clock method. According to our time scale, the diversification of crown Neobatrachia began around the end of the Early Cretaceous. Our phylogenetic tree suggests that the first split of Neobatrachia is related to the geological events in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Hence, we propose names for these clades that indicate this connection, i.e., Atlanticanura and Indianura. The Atlanticanura is composed of three major neobatrachian lineages: Heleophrynidae, Australobatrachia and Nobleobatrachia. On the other hand, the Indianura consists of two major lineages: Sooglossoidea and Ranoides. The biogeographical analysis indicates that many neobatrachian splits occurred as a result of geological events such as the separation between South America and Africa, between India and the Seychelles, and between Australia and South America.

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Biogeographic analysis for the diversification of Neobatrachia.Chronogram for Neobatrachia showing the biogeographic inference conducted using Lagrange. Squares on the side of tips represent the current distribution of taxa select for this study and the color is associated to the mundi map (a). Single area squares indicate an ancestor restricted to a single geographic area; combined squares indicate an ancestor with a distribution encompassing two or more areas; two squares separated by a space indicate the ancestral ranges inherited by each of the daughter lineages arising from the node. Only change of ancestral area or nodes of interest have squares and the absent means the same ancestral area of previous node. The result informed refers to more likelihood inference. Asterisk (*) represents the second bigger likelihood value. Black arrows show events and sequence of expansion of ancestral range along the branch. Late Cretaceous map (b) represents dispersal of ancestral Heleophrynidae from South America to South Africa and connection between Australia and South America by the ancestral Australobatrachia via Antarctic. Eocene map (c) represents connection between Australia and South America by the ancestral Hylidae via Antarctic.
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pone.0143926.g002: Biogeographic analysis for the diversification of Neobatrachia.Chronogram for Neobatrachia showing the biogeographic inference conducted using Lagrange. Squares on the side of tips represent the current distribution of taxa select for this study and the color is associated to the mundi map (a). Single area squares indicate an ancestor restricted to a single geographic area; combined squares indicate an ancestor with a distribution encompassing two or more areas; two squares separated by a space indicate the ancestral ranges inherited by each of the daughter lineages arising from the node. Only change of ancestral area or nodes of interest have squares and the absent means the same ancestral area of previous node. The result informed refers to more likelihood inference. Asterisk (*) represents the second bigger likelihood value. Black arrows show events and sequence of expansion of ancestral range along the branch. Late Cretaceous map (b) represents dispersal of ancestral Heleophrynidae from South America to South Africa and connection between Australia and South America by the ancestral Australobatrachia via Antarctic. Eocene map (c) represents connection between Australia and South America by the ancestral Hylidae via Antarctic.

Mentions: Our time scale (Fig 1) suggests that the common ancestor of Neobatrachia and Pelobatidae lived during the Early Cretaceous (143 Ma) in Gondwanaland (Fig 2, Table 1). Our results also indicate that the diversification of crown Neobatrachia began in the mid-Cretaceous (~114 Ma; Fig 1, Table 1). In addition, it seems that all five major neobatrachian lineages arose in the Cretaceous and survived the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction (Fig 1).


The Gondwana Breakup and the History of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans Unveils Two New Clades for Early Neobatrachian Diversification.

Frazão A, da Silva HR, Russo CA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Biogeographic analysis for the diversification of Neobatrachia.Chronogram for Neobatrachia showing the biogeographic inference conducted using Lagrange. Squares on the side of tips represent the current distribution of taxa select for this study and the color is associated to the mundi map (a). Single area squares indicate an ancestor restricted to a single geographic area; combined squares indicate an ancestor with a distribution encompassing two or more areas; two squares separated by a space indicate the ancestral ranges inherited by each of the daughter lineages arising from the node. Only change of ancestral area or nodes of interest have squares and the absent means the same ancestral area of previous node. The result informed refers to more likelihood inference. Asterisk (*) represents the second bigger likelihood value. Black arrows show events and sequence of expansion of ancestral range along the branch. Late Cretaceous map (b) represents dispersal of ancestral Heleophrynidae from South America to South Africa and connection between Australia and South America by the ancestral Australobatrachia via Antarctic. Eocene map (c) represents connection between Australia and South America by the ancestral Hylidae via Antarctic.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664409&req=5

pone.0143926.g002: Biogeographic analysis for the diversification of Neobatrachia.Chronogram for Neobatrachia showing the biogeographic inference conducted using Lagrange. Squares on the side of tips represent the current distribution of taxa select for this study and the color is associated to the mundi map (a). Single area squares indicate an ancestor restricted to a single geographic area; combined squares indicate an ancestor with a distribution encompassing two or more areas; two squares separated by a space indicate the ancestral ranges inherited by each of the daughter lineages arising from the node. Only change of ancestral area or nodes of interest have squares and the absent means the same ancestral area of previous node. The result informed refers to more likelihood inference. Asterisk (*) represents the second bigger likelihood value. Black arrows show events and sequence of expansion of ancestral range along the branch. Late Cretaceous map (b) represents dispersal of ancestral Heleophrynidae from South America to South Africa and connection between Australia and South America by the ancestral Australobatrachia via Antarctic. Eocene map (c) represents connection between Australia and South America by the ancestral Hylidae via Antarctic.
Mentions: Our time scale (Fig 1) suggests that the common ancestor of Neobatrachia and Pelobatidae lived during the Early Cretaceous (143 Ma) in Gondwanaland (Fig 2, Table 1). Our results also indicate that the diversification of crown Neobatrachia began in the mid-Cretaceous (~114 Ma; Fig 1, Table 1). In addition, it seems that all five major neobatrachian lineages arose in the Cretaceous and survived the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction (Fig 1).

Bottom Line: Hence, we propose names for these clades that indicate this connection, i.e., Atlanticanura and Indianura.The Atlanticanura is composed of three major neobatrachian lineages: Heleophrynidae, Australobatrachia and Nobleobatrachia.On the other hand, the Indianura consists of two major lineages: Sooglossoidea and Ranoides.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The largest anuran diversity belongs to the Neobatrachia, which harbor more than five thousand extant species. Here, we propose a new hypothesis for the historical aspects of the neobatrachian evolution with a formal biogeographical analysis. We selected 12 genes for 144 neobatrachian genera and four archaeobatrachian outgroups and performed a phylogenetic analysis using a maximum likelihood algorithm with the rapid bootstrap test. We also estimated divergence times for major lineages using a relaxed uncorrelated clock method. According to our time scale, the diversification of crown Neobatrachia began around the end of the Early Cretaceous. Our phylogenetic tree suggests that the first split of Neobatrachia is related to the geological events in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Hence, we propose names for these clades that indicate this connection, i.e., Atlanticanura and Indianura. The Atlanticanura is composed of three major neobatrachian lineages: Heleophrynidae, Australobatrachia and Nobleobatrachia. On the other hand, the Indianura consists of two major lineages: Sooglossoidea and Ranoides. The biogeographical analysis indicates that many neobatrachian splits occurred as a result of geological events such as the separation between South America and Africa, between India and the Seychelles, and between Australia and South America.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus