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The Gondwana Breakup and the History of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans Unveils Two New Clades for Early Neobatrachian Diversification.

Frazão A, da Silva HR, Russo CA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Hence, we propose names for these clades that indicate this connection, i.e., Atlanticanura and Indianura.The Atlanticanura is composed of three major neobatrachian lineages: Heleophrynidae, Australobatrachia and Nobleobatrachia.On the other hand, the Indianura consists of two major lineages: Sooglossoidea and Ranoides.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The largest anuran diversity belongs to the Neobatrachia, which harbor more than five thousand extant species. Here, we propose a new hypothesis for the historical aspects of the neobatrachian evolution with a formal biogeographical analysis. We selected 12 genes for 144 neobatrachian genera and four archaeobatrachian outgroups and performed a phylogenetic analysis using a maximum likelihood algorithm with the rapid bootstrap test. We also estimated divergence times for major lineages using a relaxed uncorrelated clock method. According to our time scale, the diversification of crown Neobatrachia began around the end of the Early Cretaceous. Our phylogenetic tree suggests that the first split of Neobatrachia is related to the geological events in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Hence, we propose names for these clades that indicate this connection, i.e., Atlanticanura and Indianura. The Atlanticanura is composed of three major neobatrachian lineages: Heleophrynidae, Australobatrachia and Nobleobatrachia. On the other hand, the Indianura consists of two major lineages: Sooglossoidea and Ranoides. The biogeographical analysis indicates that many neobatrachian splits occurred as a result of geological events such as the separation between South America and Africa, between India and the Seychelles, and between Australia and South America.

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Bayesian time-scale for Neobatrachia.Chronogram for Neobatrachia derived from Bayesian analysis employing a relaxed molecular clock. Stars next nodes indicate the bootstrap value ≥ 95. Bootstrap values lower than 95 are shown next to corresponding nodes. The horizontal blue bars represents 95% of highest posterior density (HPD). The highlight branches (bold branches) represent the five major lineages of Neobatrachia. The Roman numbers at the nodes mark the position of the fossil calibrations. The time scale measures time in millions of years.
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pone.0143926.g001: Bayesian time-scale for Neobatrachia.Chronogram for Neobatrachia derived from Bayesian analysis employing a relaxed molecular clock. Stars next nodes indicate the bootstrap value ≥ 95. Bootstrap values lower than 95 are shown next to corresponding nodes. The horizontal blue bars represents 95% of highest posterior density (HPD). The highlight branches (bold branches) represent the five major lineages of Neobatrachia. The Roman numbers at the nodes mark the position of the fossil calibrations. The time scale measures time in millions of years.

Mentions: All calibration points were chosen based on the on-line resource Lisanfos KMS, version 1.2 [9], which compiles amphibian fossil data. Using a conservative criterion, we have selected only the records with an at least partially complete skeleton and a detailed fossil description for the time analysis. Details on fossil dates and prior distribution parameters for each calibration point are provided in S2 File and S2 Fig. Using these fossils, we constrained the dates for the following nodes (see Fig 1):


The Gondwana Breakup and the History of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans Unveils Two New Clades for Early Neobatrachian Diversification.

Frazão A, da Silva HR, Russo CA - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bayesian time-scale for Neobatrachia.Chronogram for Neobatrachia derived from Bayesian analysis employing a relaxed molecular clock. Stars next nodes indicate the bootstrap value ≥ 95. Bootstrap values lower than 95 are shown next to corresponding nodes. The horizontal blue bars represents 95% of highest posterior density (HPD). The highlight branches (bold branches) represent the five major lineages of Neobatrachia. The Roman numbers at the nodes mark the position of the fossil calibrations. The time scale measures time in millions of years.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4664409&req=5

pone.0143926.g001: Bayesian time-scale for Neobatrachia.Chronogram for Neobatrachia derived from Bayesian analysis employing a relaxed molecular clock. Stars next nodes indicate the bootstrap value ≥ 95. Bootstrap values lower than 95 are shown next to corresponding nodes. The horizontal blue bars represents 95% of highest posterior density (HPD). The highlight branches (bold branches) represent the five major lineages of Neobatrachia. The Roman numbers at the nodes mark the position of the fossil calibrations. The time scale measures time in millions of years.
Mentions: All calibration points were chosen based on the on-line resource Lisanfos KMS, version 1.2 [9], which compiles amphibian fossil data. Using a conservative criterion, we have selected only the records with an at least partially complete skeleton and a detailed fossil description for the time analysis. Details on fossil dates and prior distribution parameters for each calibration point are provided in S2 File and S2 Fig. Using these fossils, we constrained the dates for the following nodes (see Fig 1):

Bottom Line: Hence, we propose names for these clades that indicate this connection, i.e., Atlanticanura and Indianura.The Atlanticanura is composed of three major neobatrachian lineages: Heleophrynidae, Australobatrachia and Nobleobatrachia.On the other hand, the Indianura consists of two major lineages: Sooglossoidea and Ranoides.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The largest anuran diversity belongs to the Neobatrachia, which harbor more than five thousand extant species. Here, we propose a new hypothesis for the historical aspects of the neobatrachian evolution with a formal biogeographical analysis. We selected 12 genes for 144 neobatrachian genera and four archaeobatrachian outgroups and performed a phylogenetic analysis using a maximum likelihood algorithm with the rapid bootstrap test. We also estimated divergence times for major lineages using a relaxed uncorrelated clock method. According to our time scale, the diversification of crown Neobatrachia began around the end of the Early Cretaceous. Our phylogenetic tree suggests that the first split of Neobatrachia is related to the geological events in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Hence, we propose names for these clades that indicate this connection, i.e., Atlanticanura and Indianura. The Atlanticanura is composed of three major neobatrachian lineages: Heleophrynidae, Australobatrachia and Nobleobatrachia. On the other hand, the Indianura consists of two major lineages: Sooglossoidea and Ranoides. The biogeographical analysis indicates that many neobatrachian splits occurred as a result of geological events such as the separation between South America and Africa, between India and the Seychelles, and between Australia and South America.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus